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Brain Health, Mental Health and the Gut Microbiome

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Mood Disorders, Depression and Anxiety

Schizophrenia. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. What Gut Bacteria Does to the Human Brain. By now, the idea that gut bacteria affects a person’s health is not revolutionary.

What Gut Bacteria Does to the Human Brain

Many people know that these microbes influence digestion, allergies, and metabolism. The trend has become almost commonplace: New books appear regularly detailing precisely which diet will lead to optimum bacterial health. But these microbes’ reach may extend much further, into the human brains. A growing group of researchers around the world are investigating how the microbiome, as this bacterial ecosystem is known, regulates how people think and feel. Scientists have found evidence that this assemblage—about a thousand different species of bacteria, trillions of cells that together weigh between one and three pounds—could play a crucial role in autism, anxiety, depression, and other disorders. This Is Your Brain on Bugs: How Gut Bacteria Affect Mental Health. As many of you adopt new behaviors and habits during this year’s 21-Day Challenge, there’s a fascinating unseen story going on between your brains and bellies I thought it’d be worth talking about.

This Is Your Brain on Bugs: How Gut Bacteria Affect Mental Health

New behaviors and habits create new neural pathways, which are essentially new road maps for how you’ll think, feel, and act in the future. Now the integrity of those neural pathways—whether they’re firing at full force and with the right materials to do their job—is intimately connected to something I’ve talked about on the blog before in different ways: our gut microbiome. But as you’ll see, this microscopic landscape is worth talking about again—specifically because it influences your brain (that grand master of all organs) and how well you’re likely to stick to all those newly adopted changes in the future.

Microbes can play games with the mind. The 22 men took the same pill for four weeks.

Microbes can play games with the mind

When interviewed, they said they felt less daily stress and their memories were sharper. The brain benefits were subtle, but the results, reported at last year’s annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, got attention. That’s because the pills were not a precise chemical formula synthesized by the pharmaceutical industry. The Gut Brain Axis and Leaky Gut.

This is a post from the Gut Critters blog that ended November 18, 2016. Ray Medina gave permission for his material to be copied as long as it was attributed to him and not used for commercial purposes. – kiraonysko

The gut microbiome is critical to making the blood brain barrier impermeable — The American Microbiome Institute. We have written before about the importance of the microbiome in enforcing gut impermeability.

The gut microbiome is critical to making the blood brain barrier impermeable — The American Microbiome Institute

Evidence is mounting that bacteria are crucial for preventing ‘leaky’, or permeable guts. Leaky guts allow molecules to pass through them, which can cause many problems, especially for the immune system. The blood brain barrier (BBB) is equally important, as it prevents toxins and molecules from entering the brain from the blood vessels.

Now, researchers have discovered the microbiome may have an equally important function towards BBB impermeability. Gut Flora and the Blood Brain Barrier. Why the Blood-Brain Barrier Is So Critical (and How to Maintain It) You all know about intestinal permeability, or “leaky gut.”

Why the Blood-Brain Barrier Is So Critical (and How to Maintain It)

The job of the gut lining is to be selectively permeable, allowing helpful things passage into the body and preventing harmful things from getting in. Nutrients get through, toxins and pathogens do not. Leaky gut describes the failure of this vetting process. But what about “leaky brain”? The microbiome’s role in the immune system of the brain — The American Microbiome Institute.

A large body of evidence continues to support the microbiome’s role in interacting with the gut-brain axis.

The microbiome’s role in the immune system of the brain — The American Microbiome Institute

Researchers in Germany recently investigated this relationship further by studying how host-microbiota can specifically influence the brain immune system of mice. The researchers studied microglial cells, which are essentially the macrophages of the brain. They patrol for pathogens, help maintain synaptic function, and play an important role in brain development. Unlike macrophages that operate in our peripheral immune system, microglia cells operate behind the blood brain barrier and are thus subject to a different standard of biological rules. Understanding how the microbiome interacts with this unique immune complex will shed light on this unique aspect to our body’s immunity. Twenty-four mice were divided into two groups; germ free (GF) mice and mice colonized with specific pathogen free (SPF) bacteria populations. Antibiotics Affect Both Gut Microbiota and Adult Neurogenesis. Antibiotics which affect levels of gut bacteria can also halt the growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus, a section of the brain associated with memory, reports a study in mice.

Antibiotics Affect Both Gut Microbiota and Adult Neurogenesis

Researchers also uncovered a clue to why. Diet and microbiome may influence cognitive flexibility — The American Microbiome Institute. There has been a lot of press recently about the microbiome’s impact on mood and behavior, the so-called ‘gut-brain axis’, and it appears now more than ever that the gut microbiome has a substantial impact on the brain.

Diet and microbiome may influence cognitive flexibility — The American Microbiome Institute

A new paper out of Oregon State University, published in the journal Neuroscience, furthers this research by showing that different diets affect mice’s cognition and memory via changes in the microbiome. Scientists fed groups of mice a normal chow and then switched their food to either high fat, or high diets, along with continuing some on the normal diet. The researchers then put them through a battery of cognitive tests, all the while measuring their microbiomes using stool samples. Gut to brain dysbiosis: mechanisms linking Western Diet consumption, the microbiome, and cognitive impairment. 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, USA 2Department of Neuroscience, University of Southern California, USA Consumption of a Western Diet (WD) that is high in saturated fat and added sugars negatively impacts cognitive function, particularly mnemonic processes that rely on the integrity of the hippocampus.

Gut to brain dysbiosis: mechanisms linking Western Diet consumption, the microbiome, and cognitive impairment

Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences cognitive function via the gut-brain axis, and that WD factors significantly alter the proportions of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we review mechanisms through which consuming a WD negatively impacts neurocognitive function, with a particular focus on recent evidence linking the gut microbiome with dietary- and metabolic-associated hippocampal impairment. Keywords: Neuroinflammation, Insulin, gut bacteria, sugar, fat, endotoxin, Hippocampus Received: 14 Nov 2016; Accepted: 11 Jan 2017.

Copyright: © 2017 Noble, Hsu and Kanoski. . * Correspondence: PhD. High Fat Diet can Change Behavior and Thoughts. Diets high in fat have long been known to increase the risk for medical problems, including heart disease and stroke, but could the consumption of fatty foods change your behavior and your brain?

High Fat Diet can Change Behavior and Thoughts

There is growing concern that these diets might also increase the risk for depression and other psychiatric disorders. Connections revealed between diet, gut microbiome and migraines - Gut Microbiota for Health. It has been reported that nitrate-containing compounds found in certain foods—typically, processed meats, leafy vegetables, chocolate and some wines—as well as food preservatives and nitrate-containing drugs may trigger migraines as a side effect, but the possible mechanistic connection between nitrates, gut microbiome and the likelihood of experiencing migraines is unknown. A recent study, led by Rob Knight from the Department of Paediatrics at the University of California San Diego in California (USA), has found that migraine sufferers have higher levels of oral bacteria involved in processing nitrates, which could make them more sensitive to certain foods that may act as migraine triggers.

The researchers used 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine whether a connection exists between nitrate-reducing bacteria in oral and faecal samples and migraines. The link between your gut and your brain, mental health, and sleep. The Cure for Brain Diseases Is in Your Gut. Researchers are just now starting to link inflammation in your gut with some of the most deadly and debilitating diseases we have. Why are we making such little progress in our attempts to uncover the causes of various forms of brain degeneration? These days we frequently hear about breakthroughs in our understanding of diseases like cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and arthritis, but when the discussion turns to the brain, there seems to be very little news. Medical research continues to operate with a reductionist mentality. The human body is looked upon as simply a compilation of various parts and systems, and each of these is looked upon as functioning independent of the others.

Interview Puts Gut Microbiome at Center of Neurological Health (ALS) In a recent interview, Dr. Could probiotics be used to improve human mental health? - Gut Microbiota for Health. Recent advances in research have described the importance of gut microbiota in influencing interactions between the central and the enteric nervous systems. These brain-gut interactions appear to be bidirectional by means of neural, endocrine, immune, and humoral signals.

Most of the data have been acquired using rodents (mice or rats) and pigs. Evidence of microbiota-mental health interactions comes from the association of intestinal dysbiosis with central nervous system disorders (e.g. anxiety-depressive behaviours) and functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g. irritable bowel syndrome) with mental health comorbidities. A brief summary of a recent review of the gut-brain axis — The American Microbiome Institute. Video: Mind-altering microbes: how the microbiome affects brain and behavior: Elaine Hsiao at TEDxCaltech. Video: Gut bacteria and mind control: to fix your brain, fix your gut! (1 h) That gut feeling. If aliens were to swoop in from outer space and squeeze a human down to see what we're made of, they would come to the conclusion that cell for cell, we're mostly bacteria. In fact, single-celled organisms—mostly bacteria—outnumber our own cells 10 to one, and most of them make their home in the gut.

The Microbiome Podcast returns: Episode 10 with Dr. John Cryan on the gut-brain axis — The American Microbiome Institute. The Microbiome Podcast has been on a hiatus since June so we wanted to make sure that our first episode back was a good one. Our conversation with Dr. Video Talk: The Microbiome Mind and Brain Interactions (40 minutes) From gut dysbiosis to altered brain function and mental illness: mechanisms and pathways. Gut Microbes and the Brain: Paradigm Shift in Neuroscience. Microbial Endocrinology in the Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis: How Bacterial Production and Utilization of Neurochemicals Influence Behavior. Citation: Lyte M (2013) Microbial Endocrinology in the Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis: How Bacterial Production and Utilization of Neurochemicals Influence Behavior. PLoS Pathog 9(11): e1003726. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003726 Editor: Virginia Miller, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, United States of America Published: November 14, 2013 Copyright: © 2013 Mark Lyte.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This manuscript was solely supported by internal university funds. Competing interests: The author has declared that no competing interests exist. The Gut Microbiome and the Brain. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota. Gut-microbiota-brain axis and effect on neuropsychiatric disorders with suspected immune dysregulation.

Microbiota and the Gut-Brain Axis. The HPA reaction to stress is programmed in early life (at least in rodents). A landmark study from Japan demonstrated that early exposure to gut microbiota reduces the exaggerated HPA responses of germ-free mice in adulthood but not if given to adult animals.22 Plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels were greater in response to stress in germ-free mice compared with specific pathogen-free mice.22 Studies have shown similar results in normal, healthy mice and rats, i.e., that feeding a probiotic can attenuate the HPA axis response to stress.15,23,24 Finally, it is important to recognize that stress itself has a major consequence on the composition and function of the gut microbiota.25 Mice fed L. rhamnosus JB-1 for 28 days experienced changes in certain Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors in different regions of the brain, increased anxiolytic behavior, and inhibition of corticosterone response to acute stress.23 These changes were compatible with benzodiazepine effects.

Video Talk: Microbiome, Brain and Behavior - Ted Dinan (30 minutes) The anorexia nervosa gut microbiome differs from healthy controls and is related to mental health — The American Microbiome Institute. Anorexia nervosa is devastating condition in which an individual purposely starves themselves leading to severely low weight. In addition, most patients with anorexia have depression, and there is a definitely mental aspect to this disease. The disease then, has both dietary and mental components, making it extremely interesting to microbiome scientists, because the microbiome is implicated with both of these facets.

A future perspective on neurodegenerative diseases: nasopharyngeal and gut microbiotauntitled. Summary Neurodegenerative diseases are considered a serious life-threatening issue regardless of age. Leaky intestine and impaired microbiome in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model. This Is Your Brain On Fiber. Alright, the brain post. As promised. Please note, this is not a deviation from our central line of inquiry — we’re dot connecting, always. So hang tight! Gut Bacteria & IQ: Could It Really Be? Back to our regularly scheduled program. We left off at a bit of a cliffhanger last time. And as with any cliffhanger, we need to follow with a recap. Here’s what we’ve done so far… …We noticed that smoking, which is the number one predictor of heart disease, causes a microbial shift. The Current State of Psychobiotics – Neuroscience News.

Review: Evidence for Psychobiotic Theory. Context: The theory that supplemented probiotic bacteria could affect psychological outcomes has recently been outlined in narrative reviews; to date, however, this area of research has not been systematically reviewed. A Hidden Factor in Stroke Severity: The Microbes in Your Gut. Microglia need microbiota for normal maturation and function. It's Not Mental. Naturopathic Medical Research Clinic (NMRC) Blog. Walsh Research Institute - Home.