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Probiotics and the Gut Microbiome

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The thinking about probiotics has been shifting in the last few years.

Often, the probiotics that you can take in a capsule are tourists that have positive effects on the immune system as they pass through.

Also check out the section on Allergies, as this is one area where specific probiotics have been helpful.

There are concerns about the effects of probiotics, particularly for people who health problems. There are also concerns about probiotic safety related to manufacturing protocols and varieties, especially hemostatic soil organisms (HSOs).

I have included resources that have glowing recommendations and cautions, both based on experience and research.

There is a lot that scientists don't know yet. Everything You Wanted To Know About Probiotics .pdf. Common Questions About Probiotic Supplementation - Part 1. I receive many questions about probiotics either through e-mail, on forums, and during coaching sessions.

Common Questions About Probiotic Supplementation - Part 1

I am going to start answering some of these questions on my blog so we both can have a better understanding of the complex issue of probiotic supplementation. If you have any questions that you want to be answered in this series you can e-mail them to me here. Question One When is the best time to take a probiotic supplement? The best time to take a probiotic supplement is a very complex question with multiple answers and depends individually on the person’s daily life and digestive health. For most people, it is best to take the supplement when your stomach acid is very low, and your MMC is in its later stages. When you take a probiotic, you want it to survive your stomach acid and make it eventually to the large intestine where the bacteria belong. Probiotics -seeds of change, or unnecessary chimpanzees?

AKA What I say when people ask me about Yakult.

Probiotics -seeds of change, or unnecessary chimpanzees?

“Probiotics -what do you think of them?” I get asked this quite a lot, when I talk about antibiotics, gut bacteria, and our own microbial community, or ‘microbiome’, in general. So first up, let’s just say, I love Microbiomes. I think the whole area is fascinating, I’m lucky enough to work in the area, and I firmly believe a better understanding will transform how we see health, and how we treat our patients.

I think…we’re not quite there yet. As I’ve heard it described many times, Microbiome science is generally still in the ‘cataloguing’ stage. How a Popular Probiotic Works. Eating a type of bacterium encourages the activity of other gut microbes, according to a small study.

How a Popular Probiotic Works

“We found that LGG transiently enriches for functions to potentially promote anti-inflammatory pathways in the resident microbes,” the authors wrote in their report, published in mBio this week (April 14). LGG is a popular dietary supplement, which the study participants ate twice a day for about a month. Analyzing stool samples before and after the trial, Claire Fraser of the University of Maryland School of Medicine and her colleagues showed that the microbial composition didn’t seem to change much.

Rather, the changes the researchers observed occurred at the level of particular transcripts. Video: Probiotics - A quick trip inside our guts! Are Probiotics The New Antioxidants.

This is a post from the Gut Critters blog that ended November 18, 2016. Ray Medina gave permission for his material to be copied as long as it was attributed to him and not used for commercial purposes. – kiraonysko

Learning what happens between a probiotic input and a health output - Gut Microbiota for Health. Input and output are subjects of intense interest in the scientific study of probiotics.

Learning what happens between a probiotic input and a health output - Gut Microbiota for Health

Since probiotics are, by definition, “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”, knowing their effects is crucial. So when someone ingests a particular probiotic, what is the potential health benefit, or output? A common assumption is that probiotics work by influencing the gut microbe community, leading to an increase in the diversity of bacterial species in the gut ecosystem and measurable excretion in the stool. But this theory doesn’t seem to be true, according to a recently published systematic review by Kristensen and colleagues in Genome Medicine. Authors of the review analyzed seven studies and found no evidence that probiotics have the ability to change fecal microbiota composition.

Mechanism of probiotic action in healthy individuals still unsettled - Gut Microbiota for Health. A recent systematic review in Genome Medicine, authored by Nadja B.

Mechanism of probiotic action in healthy individuals still unsettled - Gut Microbiota for Health

Kristensen and colleagues from the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), investigated the impact of probiotic supplementation on the fecal microbiota of healthy adults. The authors, who analyzed seven randomized controlled trials to reach their conclusion, found that probiotics do not change fecal microbiota composition. What happens to ingested microbes? Bacteria in food, including probiotics, are a major environmental source of microbes in the human body.

What happens to ingested microbes?

But what happens to the bacteria once they are ingested? Do they have any short- or long-term effects on the body? Derrien and van Hylckama Vlieg recently published a review in Trends in Microbiology, Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut microbiota, designed to answer these questions. The review is of particular relevance as probiotic foods and supplements become more widely used. One way to judge the effect of ingested microbes on the body is to ascertain their impact on the resident gut microbiota. Probiotics that can take up residency. The uniqueness of each person’s microbiome means that some probiotics may take up residency in one person and not the other.

Probiotics that can take up residency

If the probiotic comes from a fish or an algae, it is unlikely that a compatible support community of friendly bacteria will be found in a human. Below are studies finding that a probiotic took up residency in at least some people in a study. Residency is defined as being found 7 days after last administration. The studies must be on humans. Enterogermina – Four Bacillus clausii Strains“Bacillus clausii was found alive in faeces for up to 12 days. And the rest…

How are probiotics delivered most effectively? - Gut Microbiota for Health. Probiotics (mainly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) are often consumed in dairy products, such as yogurts and fermented dairy drinks.

How are probiotics delivered most effectively? - Gut Microbiota for Health

However, the role of these products as carriers or food delivery matrix in probiotic performance in the intestine is not well understood. Quality matters in probiotic products - Gut Microbiota for Health. Probiotics: Mercola Complete Probiotics. A healthy individual response to probiotics is different than a person with CFS etc.

Probiotics: Mercola Complete Probiotics

What helps one may hurt the other. Dr. Mercola is well respected but does not focus on CFS, Crohn’s Disease or other autoimmune diseases. This probiotic blend only specifies one specific strain, the rest are described at the family level (which means that we do not know exactly what their effects could be). A specific strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus may relieve symptoms of lactose intolerance - Gut Microbiota for Health. Lactose intolerance is a form of lactose maldigestion where individuals experience symptoms such as diarrhoea, abdominal cramping, flatulence, vomiting, and bowel sounds following lactose consumption.

A specific strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus may relieve symptoms of lactose intolerance - Gut Microbiota for Health

An estimated 30% of the population from the United States and Mediterranean countries may suffer from this condition, although lactose intolerance prevalence is lower in northern European countries and higher in African and Asian countries. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus may help digesting lactose contained in fermented dairy products and this could be beneficial to individuals suffering from lactose intolerance. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a species of LAB involved in sugar fermentation; no human clinical trials exist evaluating its efficacy in alleviating symptoms related to lactose intolerance. A recent study, led by Mr. Reference: Prebiotics, Synbiotics & How to Feed Your Gut Bugs. International guide to help physicians use probiotics. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), probiotics are live microorganisms that, when consumed or administered in adequate amounts, have beneficial effects on the body.

Probiotics are also usually used for the prevention and management of digestive symptoms that may be related to changes or an imbalance in the bacterial community living in our gut, the gut microbiota, such as bloating or discomfort, among others. In spite of increasing evidence and knowledge about probiotics, so far, it has not been an easy task for doctors to choose the most appropriate probiotic for each case. Protecting the gut barrier: Which probiotic wins? Many disorders are associated with impaired function of the gut barrier. The gut microbiota regulates gut barrier function, and previous research has shown that modulation of gut microbiota shows promise for enhancing barrier integrity. Researchers from France and Canada wanted to know if Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 was as effective as the commensal bacterium Faecalibacterium prauznitzii A2-165 (already known to control colonic inflammation) in treating gut barrier abnormalities.

Findings showed CNCM I-3690 indeed had anti-inflammatory effects in the gut and showed the ability to protect epithelial function. In mice with increased colonic permeability, researchers found that Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-3690 and Faecalibacterium prauznitzii A2-165 normalized the permeability to roughly the same degree. Do Probiotics Help with Depression. Ideal Lactobacillus Probiotics for CFS. A reader wrote earlier this month: “I recently started taking high dose (about 150 billion) probiotics from Custom Probiotics. It’s their D Lactate-free probiotics made up of 5 different bacteria strains.

L. SalivariusB. LactisB. Chronic Sinus Problems: Another Role for Probiotics? Can Probiotics Protect Against Respiratory Viruses. Do Probiotics Help Augment the Flu Vaccine. The microbiome’s response to the flu and its treatment — The American Microbiome Institute. In 2013 there was an avian flu (H7N9) outbreak in China that affected 140 people, killing 46 of them. During the outbreak doctors from one of the major hospitals in China treated 40 of these patients by giving them antivirals and antibiotics, amongst other first line treatments. In addition, they gave probiotics along with the antibiotics to restore the gut microbiome. All the while, they measured the patients’ microbiomes to track how they changed throughout the course of treatment.

The results of this study were published last week in the journal Nature Scientific Reports. Twenty six patients were enrolled in the study, and each of them was given antibiotics within 6 hours of admission to the hospital. Probiotic does not restore gut microbiota function in patients with metabolic syndrome — The American Microbiome Institute. Metabolic syndrome is a condition that often leads to diabetes, heart disease, and even stroke and obesity, a chronic worldwide epidemic is a leading cause of metabolic syndrome (MetS).

It has also been shown that the microbiome may be an important factor in the development of obesity and subsequently, MetS, possibly due to its impact on gut barrier integrity and inflammation. While probiotics have been used as an intervention in several animal studies on obesity and MetS, there have not been sufficient results in humans to show it is having a positive effect. Despite significant amounts of research, the question still remains if probiotics are having a lasting effect on the gut when administered. It is not clear if taking a probiotic is colonizing in the gut or if it is only providing an acute response during the timeframe it is being administered. A team of scientists published their work showing the effect that Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) had on patients with MetS.

Probiotics and natural herbs may assist in preventing liver disease — The American Microbiome Institute. Last May we talked about a study that described gut dysbiosis as an underlying cause to the development of steatosis and liver failure. Treating severe nickel allergies with probiotics — The American Microbiome Institute. A new probiotic candidate to treat C. diff — The American Microbiome Institute. More evidence that probiotics help to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis — The American Microbiome Institute. In an article published by Nature Pediatric Research, researchers investigated the effectiveness of the bacteria Bifidobacterious longum subsp. infantis as a probiotic used to decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Probiotics help prevent mammary cancer in mice — The American Microbiome Institute.

Editors note: We know we wrapped up the breast cancer awareness last week, but then we found this fascinating paper and just had to write about it. Plus, it is the last day of Breast Cancer Awareness Month, so this post is officially wrapping it up. And oh yeah, Happy Halloween! Why Supplementing With Probiotics May Make You Ill - Part 1: Excessive Histamine Production. Probiotics are important in maintaining our gut flora, but they can still cause issues just like any supplement and most issues with supplementation go unreported on the natural health blogosphere.

Everyone writes about the pros of taking probiotics, but what are the cons? Why Supplementing With Probiotics May Make You Ill – Part 2: MMC Issues. Why Supplementing With Probiotics May Make You Ill – Part 3: Mislabeling. Why Supplementing With Probiotics May Make You Ill – Part 4: D-lactate. Why Supplementing With Probiotics May Make You Ill – Part 5: Th1 / Th2 Immune Reactions. 61+ Proven Health Benefits of Probiotics and Everything There is to Know (Part 1) - Selfhacked. 61+ Proven Health Benefits of Probiotics (Part 2) - Selfhacked. 61+ Proven Health Benefits of Probiotics (Part 3) - Selfhacked. 61+ Proven Health Benefits of Probiotic (Part 4) - Selfhacked. Top 13 Scientific Health Benefits of L Reuteri - Selfhacked. My Three Recommended Probiotic Strains. Clinical Guide to Probiotic Probiotic Products - US. New app helps Canadians choose a probiotic. Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products - Canada. Yogurt as a Probiotic, A Review.

Why I am Split on Recommending Kefir, A Review.

Soil-Based Organisms

Probiotics Survive Better with Some Fat: It’s the pH. More on Probiotic Timing. Changes in the Functional Potential of the Gut Microbiome Following Probiotic Supplementation during Helicobacter Pylori Treatment. Fructose And Probiotics. The Health Benefits of Fermented Foods - The Paleo Mom. FermentWorks. Probiotic Microbes: Do they need to be alive to be beneficial?