Existentialism Here and Now Summer 1984 By Alfie Kohn TWENTY-FIVE YEARS ago, existentialism was a hot piece of intellectual property. A wide reading public was buying up such new books as William Barrett’s Irrational Man: A Study in Existential Philosophy and Viktor Frankl’s From Death Camp to Existentialism (later republished under the title Man’s Search for Meaning). American psychologists were being introduced to the movement by a brilliant anthology entitled Existence: A New Dimension in Psychiatry and Psychology, edited by Rollo May and others. The 1958 International Congress of Psychotherapy chose existential psychology as its theme. Today all six men are dead and, from first appearances, so is the movement for which they are known. Is such a book, in fact, no more than an exercise in nostalgia? What Existentialism Is and Is Not To start with the former, Maurice Friedman began his introduction to The Worlds of Existentialism by sounding a note of annoyance: The “pessimist” epithet is even less appropriate. 1.
Web resources on consciousness, philosophy, and such Web resources related to consciousness, philosophy, and such. Compiled by David Chalmers Here are a small number of high-quality academic resources on the web that I find useful or interesting. The emphasis is on sites containing real intellectual content. See also my lists of people with online papers in philosophy and of online papers on consciousness. Consciousness resources Philosophy resources Philosophy journals online Cognitive science resources Meta-resources Disorders of consciousness Interactive demonstrations Miscellaneous sites with interesting content Go to: David Chalmers' home page
Self-determination theory In the 1970s, research on SDT evolved from studies comparing the intrinsic and extrinsic motives, and from growing understanding of the dominant role intrinsic motivation played in an individual’s behavior but it was not until mid-1980s that SDT was formally introduced and accepted as a sound empirical theory. Research applying SDT to different areas in social psychology has increased considerably since the 2000s. Key studies that led to emergence of SDT included research on intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation). Basic theory SDT is centered on the belief that human nature shows persistent positive features, that it repeatedly shows effort, agency and commitment in their lives that the theory calls "inherent growth tendencies." CompetenceRelatednessAutonomy Needs
unwrap your mind — Existential therapy Background The starting point of existential philosophy (see Warnock, 1970; Macquarrie, 1972; Mace, 1999; Van Deurzen and Kenward, 2005) can be traced back to the nineteenth century and the work of Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche. Both were in conflict with the predominant ideologies of their time and committed to the exploration of reality as it can be experienced in a passionate and personal manner. Kierkegaard (1813–55) protested vigorously against popular misunderstanding and abuse of Christian dogma and the so-called 'objectivity' of science (Kierkegaard, 1841, 1844). He thought that both were ways of avoiding the anxiety inherent in human existence. He had great contempt for the way in which life was being lived by those around him and believed that truth could ultimately only be discovered subjectively by the individual in action. Nietzsche (1844–1900) took this philosophy of life a step further. Development in Britain Psychological dysfunction
New Documents Reveal How a 1980s Nuclear War Scare Became a Full-Blown Crisis During 10 days in November 1983, the United States and the Soviet Union nearly started a nuclear war. Newly declassified documents from the CIA, NSA, KGB, and senior officials in both countries reveal just how close we came to mutually assured destruction — over a military exercise. That exercise, Able Archer 83, simulated the transition by NATO from a conventional war to a nuclear war, culminating in the simulated release of warheads against the Soviet Union. NATO changed its readiness condition during Able Archer to DEFCON 1, the highest level. According to a diplomatic memo obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request by National Security Archives researcher Nate Jones, Soviet General Secretary Yuri Adroprov warned U.S. ambassador Averell Harriman six months before the crisis that both countries “may be moving toward a red line” in which a miscalculation could spark a nuclear war. The early 1980s was a “crisis period, a pre-wartime period,” said Gen. Go Back to Top.
Filosofía La filosofía occidental ha tenido una profunda influencia y se ha visto profundamente influida por la ciencia, la religión y la política occidentales.  Muchos filósofos importantes fueron a la vez grandes científicos, teólogos o políticos, y algunas nociones fundamentales de estas disciplinas todavía son objeto de estudio filosófico. Esta superposición entre disciplinas se debe a que la filosofía es una disciplina muy amplia. En la actualidad sin embargo y desde el siglo XIX, la mayoría de filósofos han restringido su área de investigación, y se caracterizan por estudiar las cuestiones más fundamentales y generales. Etimología[editar] Busto de Pitágoras, a quien se atribuye la invención de la palabra «filosofía». Según Pitágoras, la vida era comparable a los juegos olímpicos, porque en ellos encontramos tres clases de personas: las que buscan honor y gloria, las que buscan riquezas, y las que simplemente buscan contemplar el espectáculo, los filósofos. Ramas de la filosofía[editar]
Logotherapy Basic principles The notion of Logotherapy was created with the Greek word logos ("meaning"). Frankl’s concept is based on the premise that the primary motivational force of an individual is to find a meaning in life. The following list of tenets represents basic principles of logotherapy: Life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable ones.Our main motivation for living is our will to find meaning in life.We have freedom to find meaning in what we do, and what we experience, or at least in the stand we take when faced with a situation of unchangeable suffering. The human spirit is referred to in several of the assumptions of logotherapy, but the use of the term spirit is not "spiritual" or "religious". Discovering meaning "Once, an elderly general practitioner consulted me because of his severe depression. Philosophical basis of logotherapy Logotherapeutic views and treatment Overcoming anxiety Treatment of neurosis Depression
Epistemology A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge Epistemology (/ɪˌpɪstɪˈmɒlədʒi/ ( listen); from Greek, Modern ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning 'knowledge', and -logy) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge. Epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Etymology The word epistemology is derived from the ancient Greek epistēmē meaning "knowledge" and the suffix -logy, meaning "logical discourse" (derived from the Greek word logos meaning "discourse"). The title of one of the principal works of Fichte is ′Wissenschaftslehre,′ which, after the analogy of technology ... we render epistemology. It was properly introduced in the philosophical literature by Scottish philosopher J.F. This section of the science is properly termed the Epistemology—the doctrine or theory of knowing, just as ontology is the science of being... The idea of epistemology predates the word. Defining knowledge
Existentialism Existentialism is a term applied to the work of certain late 19th- and 20th-century philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences, shared the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual. In existentialism, the individual's starting point is characterized by what has been called "the existential attitude", or a sense of disorientation and confusion in the face of an apparently meaningless or absurd world. Many existentialists have also regarded traditional systematic or academic philosophies, in both style and content, as too abstract and remote from concrete human experience. Definitional issues and background There has never been general agreement on the definition of existentialism. The term is often seen as an historical convenience as it was first applied to many philosophers in hindsight, long after they had died. Concepts The Absurd
Alexander Solzhenitsyn Biography | List of Works, Study Guides & Essays Alexander Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was born on December 11, 1918, in the spa town of Kislovodsk in the North Caucausus mountains. His father, a former philology student at Moscow University, had died in World War I six months before his only son's birth. Alexander Isaevich, therefore, was born to a widowed mother in relatively indigent circumstances. The elder Solzhenitsyn had volunteered from the army, abandoning his course of study, in 1914 and had served as an artillery officer on the German front. He was an officer in the Grenadier Artillery Brigade and a member of a battery that remained on the front lines until the Treaty of Brest. He and Alexander's mother had been married on the front lines by a brigade priest. Solzhenitsyn's mother never remarried, partially because of her fear that a new husband would be too strict a step-father to her son. From his boyhood, Solzhenitsyn planned to become a writer, though he called his early writings "much of the usual youthful nonsense."