Behaviorism (or behaviourism), is the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only, it is also an approach to psychology that combines elements of philosophy, methodology, and theory. It emerged in the early twentieth century as a reaction to "mentalistic" psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods. The primary tenet of behaviorism, as expressed in the writings of John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and others, is that psychology should concern itself with the observable behavior of people and animals, not with unobservable events that take place in their minds. The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors as such can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as thoughts and beliefs. Versions Two subtypes are: Definition Experimental and conceptual innovations Relation to language
Related: Psychology 102
George Kelly (psychologist)George Kelly (born George Alexander Kelly; April 28, 1905 – March 6, 1967) was an American psychologist, therapist, educator and personality theorist. He is considered the father of cognitive clinical psychology and best known for his theory of personality, Personal Construct Psychology. Kelly's fundamental view of personality was that people are like naive scientists who see the world through a particular lens, based on their uniquely organized systems of construction, which they use to anticipate events. The body of Kelly's work, The Psychology of Personal Constructs, Volume I and II was written in 1955 when Kelly was a professor at Ohio State University. Constructs are bipolar categories, the way two things are alike and different from a third, that people employ to understand the world. Kelly's is the only personality theory ever laid out as a testable scientific treatise with a fundamental postulate and a set of corollaries. 1955: The psychology of personal constructs.
His IdeasRepertory gridIntroduction The repertory grid is a technique for identifying the ways that a person construes (interprets/ gives meaning to) his or her experience. It provides information from which inferences about personality can be made, but it is not a personality test in the conventional sense. A grid consists of four parts: A Topic: it is about some part of the person's experienceA set of Elements, which are examples or instances of the Topic. Constructs are regarded as personal to the client, who is psychologically similar to other people depending on the extent to which s/he would tend to use similar constructs, and similar ratings, in relating to a particular set of elements. The client is asked to consider the elements three at a time, and to identify a way in which two of the elements might be seen as alike, but distinct from, contrasted to, the third. Using the Repertory Grid Analysis of results External links Jankowicz D. Software
HumanismIn modern times, humanist movements are typically aligned with secularism, and today "Humanism" typically refers to a non-theistic life stance centred on human agency, and looking to science instead of religious dogma in order to understand the world. Background The word "Humanism" is ultimately derived from the Latin concept humanitas, and, like most other words ending in -ism, entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning (literally "good letters"). In the second century A.D, a Latin grammarian, Aulus Gellius (c. 125– c. 180), complained: Gellius says that in his day humanitas is commonly used as a synonym for philanthropy – or kindness and benevolence toward one's fellow human being. History Predecessors Asia Ancient Greece Types
Generative grammarEarly versions of Chomsky's theory were called transformational grammar, and this term is still used as a general term that includes his subsequent theories. There are a number of competing versions of generative grammar currently practiced within linguistics. Chomsky's current theory is known as the Minimalist program. Chomsky has argued that many of the properties of a generative grammar arise from an "innate" universal grammar. Most versions of generative grammar characterize sentences as either grammatically correct (also known as well formed) or not. Frameworks There are a number of different approaches to generative grammar. Historical development of models of transformational grammar Chomsky, in an award acceptance speech delivered in India in 2001, claimed "The first generative grammar in the modern sense was Panini's grammar".This work, called the Ashtadhyayi, was composed in 6th century BC. Standard Theory (1957–1965) Extended Standard Theory (1965–1973)
Social learning theoryis a perspective that states that people learn within a social context. It is facilitated through concepts such as modeling and observational learning. [ 1 ] [ edit ] Theory According to Social Learning theory, models are an important source for learning new behaviors and for achieving behavioral change in institutionalized settings. [ 2 ] Social learning theory is derived from the work of Albert Bandura which proposed that observational learning can occur in relation to three models: [ 3 ] • Live model – in which an actual person is demonstrating the desired behaviour • Verbal instruction – in which an individual describes the desired behaviour in detail, and instructs the participant in how to engage in the behavior • Symbolic – in which modeling occurs by means of the media, including movies, television, Internet, literature, and radio. An important factor of Bandura’s social learning theory is the emphasis on reciprocal determinism. 1. 2. 3. 4. [ edit ] Criminology [ edit ] Applications
CognitionCognition is a faculty for the processing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can be natural or artificial, conscious or unconscious. These processes are analyzed from different perspectives within different contexts, notably in the fields of linguistics, anesthesia, neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, philosophy, anthropology, systemics, and computer science.[page needed] Within psychology or philosophy, the concept of cognition is closely related to abstract concepts such as mind, intelligence. It encompasses the mental functions, mental processes (thoughts), and states of intelligent entities (humans, collaborative groups, human organizations, highly autonomous machines, and artificial intelligences). Etymology Origins Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) heavily emphasized the notion of what he called introspection; examining the inner feelings of an individual. Psychology Social process Serial position
Profiles: The Devil’s AccountantPROFILE of Noam Chomsky... Writer describes the scene during Chomsky’s Thursday evening M.I.T. class about politics... When Chomsky likened the September 11th attacks to Clinton’s bombing of a factory in Khartoum, many found the comparison not only absurd but repugnant: how could he speak in the same breath of an attack intended to maximize civilian deaths and one intended to minimize them?