Commons Shared resources The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can also be understood as natural resources that groups of people (communities, user groups) manage for individual and collective benefit. Characteristically, this involves a variety of informal norms and values (social practice) employed for a governance mechanism. Commons can be also defined as a social practice of governing a resource not by state or market but by a community of users that self-governs the resource through institutions that it creates . Definition and modern use
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Wikimedia Commons CancelEditDeletePreviewrevert Text of the note (may include Wiki markup) Could not save your note (edit conflict or other problem). Knowledge commons Conceptual background The term 'commons' is derived from the medieval economic system the commons. Today, the knowledge commons act as a frame of reference for a number of domains, including Open Educational resources such as the MIT OpenCourseware, free digital media such as Wikipedia, Creative commons–licensed art, open-source research, and open scientific collections such as the Public Library of Science or the Science Commons, Free Software and Open Design. According to research by Charlotte Hess and Elinor Ostrom, the conceptual background of the knowledge commons encompasses two intellectual histories: first, a European tradition of battling the enclosure of the "intangible commons of the mind", threatened by expanding intellectual property rights and privatization of knowledge. Copyleft A main principle of the knowledge commons is that the traditional "copyright" is being replaced by "copyleft".
Understanding Knowledge as a Commons Knowledge in digital form offers unprecedented access to information through the Internet but at the same time is subject to ever-greater restrictions through intellectual property legislation, overpatenting, licensing, overpricing, and lack of preservation. Looking at knowledge as a commons—as a shared resource—allows us to understand both its limitless possibilities and what threatens it. In Understanding Knowledge as a Commons, experts from a range of disciplines discuss the knowledge commons in the digital era—how to conceptualize it, protect it, and build it. Contributors consider the concept of the commons historically and offer an analytical framework for understanding knowledge as a shared social-ecological system. They look at ways to guard against enclosure of the knowledge commons, considering, among other topics, the role of research libraries, the advantages of making scholarly material available outside the academy, and the problem of disappearing Web pages.
Knowledge Is a Common Good - Transform Network The Effects of the Open Source Movement on the Development of Politics and Society Introduction In October 2009, Transform! co-promoted the first Free Culture Forum (FCF). The FCF is one of the first attempts to create an international space of networking and strategic reflection for a wide range of movements that have emerged across the world in different fields and are related to the production, access, circulation and management of cultural works and knowledge goods. Towards a Material Commons Transcripted from the original audio by Jane Loes Lipton for Guerrilla Translation!Main image by Stacco TroncosoThis transcript is also available as a Spanish translation Can commons-oriented peer production be applied to material production? Will activists and contributors to the commons always be forced to work within capitalist structures to subsist while investing their available free time in volunteer activities? How can we create socially-oriented companies without the start-up capital to fund them? Is there a model that will allow us to make a living, produce goods and services and even compete with the dominant hegemony?
Communicating the Commons << Outline View >> Back to Bubble View This is a work in progress. For the past couple of years I have collated and curated the possibilities, concepts, alternatives that people striving for a 'better world' were working on and talking about in various social network groups dedicated to sustainability, commons, new economy. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation : Scientific Reports Overview of mechanism The main idea behind the mechanism is illustrated in Figure 1. In contrast with the Pigouvian approach, which focuses on the individual causing the externality, our mechanism focuses on their peers in the social network.
Value Of The Public Domain Introduction One of the first printed texts of which we have record is a copy of the Buddhist Diamond sutra produced in China around 868AD. In it can be found the dedication: "for universal free distribution". Shortage of Resources for Renewable Energy. UK Government Report Calls for “Strategic Metals” Plan. Not only are supplies of oil and natural gas under imminent threat of failing to meet demand for them, but so is a whole range of precious metals, along with indium, gallium and germanium and other vital elements such as phosphorus and helium, as is discussed throughout this Commentary. A report1 from the Science and Technology Committee, advised by the Royal Society of Chemistry, warns that if the U.K. does not secure supplies of strategic metals, its economic growth will be severely jeopardized.
Debategraph <-- Outline view Paul Hawken describes the challenge of sustainability and activist movements that he sees converging into an unnamed and shapeless 'movement' in his book Blessed Unrest: " ... as yet there has been no coming together of organizations in a united front that can counter the massive scale and power of the global corporations and lobbyists that protect the status quo. ...The as yet undelivered promise of this movement is a network of organizations that offer solutions to disantangle what appear to be insoluble dilemmas: poverty, global climate change, terrorism, ecological degradation, polarization of income, loss of culture, and many more. The world seems to be looking for the big solution, which is itself part of the problem, since the most effective solutions are both local and systemic. Although the groups in the movement are autonomous, the coming together of different organizations to address an array of issues can effectively become a systemic approach.
Rio+20 – Tragedy of the Commons 2.0? Are the discussions on sustainability at Rio about to end once more with no serious commitment to the fundamental transformations needed? These coming three days will be decisive with heads of state coming to a closure at the end of the week. They are summoned to exercise leadership and face their responsibilities. The feedback received from Rio is unpromising, after mobilizing for proposals via The Future We Want and other avenues for feedback and recommendation, most of the organizations representing civil society feel they have hardly been able to get their voice heard and they are now circulating a petition on The Future We Don’t Want… An admission of failure and the sentiment of having been played?