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Metaphysics is a traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it,[1] although the term is not easily defined.[2] Traditionally, metaphysics attempts to answer two basic questions in the broadest possible terms:[3] Ultimately, what is there?What is it like? Prior to the modern history of science, scientific questions were addressed as a part of metaphysics known as natural philosophy. Originally, the term "science" (Latin scientia) simply meant "knowledge". The scientific method, however, transformed natural philosophy into an empirical activity deriving from experiment unlike the rest of philosophy. Etymology[edit] However, once the name was given, the commentators sought to find intrinsic reasons for its appropriateness. Central questions[edit] Cosmology and cosmogony[edit] Metaphysical Cosmology is the branch of metaphysics that deals with the world as the totality of all phenomena in space and time. [edit] [edit]

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Natural philosophy A celestial map from the 17th century, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik De Wit Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural sciences such as physics. Natural science historically developed out of philosophy or, more specifically, natural philosophy. At older universities, long-established Chairs of Natural Philosophy are nowadays occupied mainly by physics professors. Modern meanings of the terms science and scientists date only to the 19th century.

Reality Not to be confused with Realty. Philosophers, mathematicians, and other ancient and modern thinkers, such as Aristotle, Plato, Frege, Wittgenstein, and Russell, have made a distinction between thought corresponding to reality, coherent abstractions (thoughts of things that are imaginable but not real), and that which cannot even be rationally thought. By contrast existence is often restricted solely to that which has physical existence or has a direct basis in it in the way that thoughts do in the brain. Reality is often contrasted with what is imaginary, delusional, (only) in the mind, dreams, what is false, what is fictional, or what is abstract.

Banksy’s New Apocalyptic Theme Park Is Designed to Disappoint A glitchy Ariel is one of the Banksy works that will greet crowds to Dismaland. (all images courtesy Christopher Jobson of Colossal) Today, it was officially announced that British artist Banksy has constructed a dystopian riff on Disneyland in a derelict seaside resort in Weston-super-Mare, England. Called Dismaland, the ambitious five-week project is sure to attract visitors eager for the artist’s brand of viral culture jamming and populist humor, but there’s a twist. Most of the art on display at Dismaland is not by Banksy — though he has contributed 10 new works — but by 58 artists invited to participate, including blue-chip names Damien Hirst, Jenny Holzer, and David Shrigley, and popular artists associated with street art like Espo, Escif, Bäst, and El Teneen.

Virtual Particles: What are they? The term “virtual particle” is an endlessly confusing and confused subject for the layperson, and even for the non-expert scientist. I have read many books for laypeople (yes, I was a layperson once myself, and I remember, at the age of 16, reading about this stuff) and all of them talk about virtual particles and not one of them has ever made any sense to me. So I am going to try a different approach in explaining it to you. The best way to approach this concept, I believe, is to forget you ever saw the word “particle” in the term.

Epistemology Epistemology ( i/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge", and λόγος, logos, meaning "logical discourse") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.[1] Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Philosophy Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[1][2] Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument.[3] In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group".[4] The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom".[5][6][7] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.[8] Areas of inquiry Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. These include epistemology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics.[9][10] Some of the major areas of study are considered individually below. Epistemology

Problem of universals While philosophers agree that human beings talk and think about properties, they disagree on whether these universals exist in reality or merely in thought and speech. Positions[edit] The main positions on the issue are generally considered to be: realism, nominalism, and idealism (sometimes simply called "anti-realism" with regard to universals).[4] Realism[edit] The realist school claims that universals are real — they exist and are distinct from the particulars that instantiate them. There are various forms of realism. Learn to Fight Capitalism at the School of Disobedience Jani Leinonen, “School of Disobedience” (2015) (courtesy the artist) A forthcoming exhibition in Helsinki will offer visitors an education grounded in disobedience and protest, equipping them with tools and ideas to challenge society’s injustices and fight for change. The School of Disobedience, which opens on September 4 at Finland’s contemporary art museum, Kiasma, is part art show, part educational institution: visitors to the museum are treated as students, receiving lessons from the more than 100 works on view or through a series of workshops with curricula that encourage civil disobedience through different media. Conceived by Finnish artist Jani Leinonen, whose own work is very critical of capitalist systems, the school intends to instill in the public — particularly young people — an urgent desire for social justice.

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