National Culture About the research Professor Geert Hofstede conducted one of the most comprehensive studies of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. He analysed a large database of employee value scores collected within IBM between 1967 and 1973. Cultural Dimensions - Geert Hofstede Geert Hofstede’s scientific innovation, the dimension concept Geert Hofstede has defined “culture” as “the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others”. In 1980 he published his book “Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values”. As the title suggests, this book was entirely devoted to the study of culture at the national level, in which values played a major role. The book’s main innovation was its use of the concept (paradigm) of dimensions of culture: basic problems to which different national societies have over time developed different answers.
Countries Please select a country in the dropdown menu above to see the values for the 6 dimensions. After a first country has been selected, a second and even a third country can be chosen to be able to see a comparison of their scores. To compare your personal preferences to the scores of a country of your choice, please purchase our cultural survey tool, the Culture Compass™. Psychologywriter Dr Christian Jarrett is Senior Editor at Aeon magazine, working on their forthcoming Psyche channel devoted to psychological wellbeing. In July 2019 he will leave his position as Founding Editor of the Research Digest blog published by the British Psychological Society, & presenter of their PsychCrunch podcast. He is currently writing PERSONOLOGY, Using the Science of Personality Change to Your Advantage, forthcoming from Simon and Schuster (North America) & Little Brown (UK and Commonwealth). Christian writes a column on personality for BBC Future , an anxiety-advice column for VICE Tonic, & is an expert panelist for BBC Focus.
The 4Ss of Note-Taking With Technology Recently, a number of articles have surfaced reporting the ineffectiveness of note taking with laptops, in keeping with the findings of Pam Mueller and Daniel Oppenheimer detailed in The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard. These authors assert that when students used laptops in lecture courses, they transcribed notes rather than synthesized information. As a result, those students then performed poorly on cognitively demanding tasks. However, before making a blanket statement that one device may be better than another (e.g. pen vs. laptop) or calling into question what may be the best note-taking system, what if we approach the concept by identifying what is best for individual students? In other words, does the system . . . Adequately support the students' learning needs?
Germany - Geert Hofstede If we explore the German culture through the lens of the 6-D Model©, we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of German culture relative to other world cultures. Power DistanceThis dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal – it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Highly decentralised and supported by a strong middle class, Germany is not surprisingly among the lower power distant countries (score 35). Co-determination rights are comparatively extensive and have to be taken into account by the management. A direct and participative communication and meeting style is common, control is disliked and leadership is challenged to show expertise and best accepted when it’s based on it.
Organisational Culture The research of Geert Hofstede has shown that cultural differences between nations are particularly found at the deepest level, the level of values. In comparison, cultural differences among organisations are principally identified at the level of practices. Practices are more tangible than values. Organisational Culture can be defined as "the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one organisation from others." The Organisational Cultural model, further developed by Bob Waisfisz in collaboration with Geert Hofstede, consists of six autonomous dimensions (variables) and two semi-autonomous dimensions. Please note that the model on Organisational Culture that we describe on this website is a derivative of Geert Hofstede's research findings, and therefore not identical to the descriptions of Organisational Culture that can be found in Hofstede's publications.
Forex Trading: A Beginner's Guide Forex is short for foreign exchange, but the actual asset class we are referring to is currencies. Foreign exchange is the act of changing one country's currency into another country's currency for a variety of reasons, usually for tourism or commerce. Due to the fact that business is global there is a need to transact with most other countries in their own particular currency. After the accord at Bretton Woods in 1971, when currencies were allowed to float freely against one another, the values of individual currencies have varied, which has given rise to the need for foreign exchange services.