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Body horror. Body horror, biological horror, organic horror or venereal horror is horror fiction in which the horror is principally derived from the graphic destruction or degeneration of the body.[1] Such works may deal with disease, decay, parasitism, mutilation, or mutation. Other types of body horror include unnatural movements, or the anatomically incorrect placement of limbs to create 'monsters' out of human body parts. David Cronenberg, Frank Henenlotter, Brian Yuzna, Stuart Gordon, Lloyd Kaufman, and Clive Barker are notable directors of this genre. §Notable films and television series[edit] §Notable graphic novels[edit] §Use in video games[edit] In recent years the subjects of human experimentation, medical research, and infection have played large roles in video games whose plots are heavily influenced by themes common in body horror. §See also[edit] §References[edit] §External links[edit] Cult film. "Cult classic" redirects here.

For the album by Blue Öyster Cult, see Cult Classic. Cult films frequently break cultural taboos, and many feature excessive displays of violence, gore, sexuality, profanity, or combinations thereof. This can lead to controversy, censorship, and outright bans; less transgressive films may attract similar amounts of controversy when critics call them frivolous or incompetent. Films that fail to attract requisite amounts of controversy may face resistance when labeled as cult films. Mainstream films and big budget blockbusters have attracted cult followings similar to more underground and lesser known films; fans of these films often emphasize the films' niche appeal and reject the more popular aspects. Fans who like the films for the wrong reasons, such as perceived elements that represent mainstream appeal and marketing, will often be ostracized or ridiculed.

Since the late 1970s, cult films have become increasingly popular. Definition[edit] Exploitation film. Hyperlink cinema. Analysis[edit] The hyperlink cinema narrative and story structure can be compared to social science's spatial analysis. As described by Edward Soja and Costis Hadjimichalis spatial analysis examines the "'horizontal experience' of human life, the spatial dimension of individual behavior and social relations, as opposed to the 'vertical experience' of history, tradition, and biography. "[6] English critic John Berger notes for the novel that "it is scarcely any longer possible to tell a straight story sequentially unfolding in time" for "we are too aware of what is continually traversing the story line laterally.

Hyperlink films[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Jason Kottke's explanation of the origin of the term. Continuity editing. Continuity editing is the predominant style of film editing and video editing in the post-production process of filmmaking of narrative films and television programs. The purpose of continuity editing is to smooth over the inherent discontinuity of the editing process and to establish a logical coherence between shots. Common techniques of continuity editing[edit] Continuity editing can be divided into two categories: temporal continuity and spatial continuity. Within each category, specific techniques will work against a sense of continuity.

An ellipsis is an apparent break in natural time continuity as it is implied in the film's story. Diegetic sound is that which is to have actually occurred within the story during the action being viewed. Match on action technique can preserve temporal continuity where there is a uniform, unrepeated physical motion or change within a passage. The montage technique is one that implies no real temporal continuity whatsoever. Further reading[edit] Category:Film theory. History of film. This article is about the history of film as an artistic medium. For the history of motion-picture technology, see History of film technology. New film techniques that were introduced in this period include the use of artificial lighting, fire effects and Low-key lighting (i.e. lighting in which most of the frame is dark) for enhanced atmosphere during sinister scenes.

As films grew longer, specialist writers were employed to simplify more complex stories derived from novels or plays into a form that could be contained on one reel. Genres began to be used as categories; the main division was into comedy and drama, but these categories were further subdivided. The years of the First World War were a complex transitional period for the film industry. The exhibition of films changed from short one-reel programmes to feature films. Exhibition venues became larger and began charging higher prices. D. During the 1980s, audiences began increasingly watching films on their home VCRs.

Histoire du cinéma. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Cet article retrace les grandes étapes qui jalonnent l'histoire générale du cinéma. Origines du cinéma[modifier | modifier le code] Le cinéma naît à la fin du dix-neuvième siècle. Dans de nombreux articles et livres, on peut lire encore aujourd'hui, et plus spécialement en France, que « les inventeurs du cinéma sont les frères Lumière[1] ». En français, l'apocope de la marque déposée Cinématographe, le cinéma, va s'imposer dans le langage courant en quelques années. Construire la machine appelée « le Cinématographe » ne revient pas à inventer ce qui est au cœur du 7e Art, son essence même : les films (d'après une déclaration signée de Dickson, c'est Edison qui, le premier, adapte le mot anglais film aux œuvres de cinéma).

Précinéma[modifier | modifier le code] Pour désigner les recherches qui précèdent l’invention des premiers films de cinéma, et qui n'utilisent pas le film souple de celluloïd, on parle de précinéma[15]. Silent film. A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. In silent films for entertainment the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, mime and title cards.

The idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, synchronized dialogue was only made practical in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the introduction of the Vitaphone system. (The term silent film is therefore a retronym, that is, a term created to distinguish something retroactively – the descriptor silent used before the late 1920s would have been a redundancy.) After the release of The Jazz Singer in 1927, "talkies" became more and more commonplace. A September 2013 report by the United States Library of Congress announced that a total of 70% of American silent films are believed to be completely lost.[1] Elements (1894 – 1929)[edit] Intertitles[edit]

Classical Hollywood cinema. Category:History of film. The history of film or cinema has brought this mass media from its early stages as an obscure novelty to one of the most important tools of communication and entertainment in the modern world. Film has existed since the late 19th century, and in the time since has had a broad impact on the arts, technology, and even politics. Subcategories This category has the following 21 subcategories, out of 21 total. Pages in category "History of film" The following 163 pages are in this category, out of 163 total. Category:Hollywood history and culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The history and culture of Hollywood — and of the motion picture industry in the Greater Los Angeles Area and Southern California.

Subcategories This category has the following 8 subcategories, out of 8 total. Pages in category "Hollywood history and culture" The following 160 pages are in this category, out of 160 total. New Hollywood. The films they made were part of the studio system, and although these individuals were not "independent filmmakers", they introduced subject matter and styles that set them apart from the studio traditions that an earlier generation had established ca. 1920s–1950s. New Hollywood has also been defined as a broader filmmaking movement influenced by this period, which has been called the "Hollywood renaissance".

Background and overview[edit] Following the Paramount Case, which ended block booking and ownership of theater chains by film studios and the advent of television, both of which severely weakened the traditional studio system, Hollywood studios initially used spectacle to retain profitability. Technicolor developed a far more widespread use, while widescreen processes and technical improvements, such as CinemaScope, stereo sound and others, such as 3-D, were invented in order to retain the dwindling audience and compete with television. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bonnie and Clyde[edit] French New Wave. The New Wave (French: La Nouvelle Vague) is a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s. Although never a formally organized movement, the New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of the literary period pieces being made in France and written by novelists, along with their spirit of youthful iconoclasm, the desire to shoot more current social issues on location, and their intention of experimenting with the film form.

"New Wave" is an example of European art cinema.[2] Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. Using portable equipment and requiring little or no set up time, the New Wave way of filmmaking presented a documentary style.

The films exhibited direct sounds on film stock that required less light. Origins of the movement[edit] French Impressionist Cinema. French Impressionist Cinema, also referred to as the first avant-garde or narrative avant-garde, is a term applied to a group of French films and filmmakers of the 1920s. Filmmakers and films (selection)[edit] Periodization[edit] 1. Pictorialism (beginning in 1918): made up of films that focus mainly on manipulation of the film as image, in through camerawork, mise-en-scene, and optical devices. 2.

Montage (beginning in 1923): at which point rhythmic and fast paced editing became more widely used. 3. Stylistic paradigm[edit] Based on David Bordwell’s family resemblance model: 4 I. A. B. C. II. A. B. C. III. A. B. C. D. E. F. IV. A. B. C. Relation to/deviation from Hollywood stylistics[edit] However, even Marcel L’Herbier, one of the chief filmmakers associated with the movement, admitted to an ununified theoretical stance: “None of us – Dulac, Epstein, Delluc or myself – had the same aesthetic outlook. Criticism[edit] Theory[edit] Subjectivity Photogénie Notes[edit] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Italian Futurism (cinema) Italian Futurism was a movement in film history from 1916 to 1919 influenced by Futurism.

Italian Futurism influenced Russian Futurist cinema (Lev Kuleshov, Dziga Vertov, Sergei Eisenstein, Vsevolod Pudovkin, Aleksandr Dovzhenko) and German Expressionism. Giovanni Lista, Cinema e fotografia futurista, Edizioni Skira, Milan, 2001.Giovanni Lista, Le Futurisme : création et avant-garde, Éditions L’Amateur, Paris, 2001Giovanni Lista, Cinéma et photographie futuristes, Skira-Flammarion Éditeur, Paris, 2008Giovanni Lista, Le Cinéma futuriste, Éditions du Centre Pompidou-Les Cahiers de Paris Expérimental, Paris, 2008Giovanni Lista, Il Cinema futurista"", Le Mani-Microart's Edizioni, Gênes, 2010.

Italian neorealism. History[edit] Italian Neorealism came about as World War II ended and Benito Mussolini's government fell, causing the Italian film industry to lose its center. Neorealism was a sign of cultural change and social progress in Italy. Its films presented contemporary stories and ideas, and were often shot in the streets because, the Cinecittà film studios had been damaged significantly during the war. The first neorealist film is generally thought to be Ossessione by Luchino Visconti (1943). Italian Neorealism rapidly declined in the early 1950s. Characteristics[edit] They are generally filmed with nonprofessional actors—although, in a number of cases, well known actors were cast in leading roles, playing strongly against their normal character types in front of a background populated by local people rather than extras brought in for the film.

They are shot almost exclusively on location, mostly in run-down cities as well as rural areas due to its forming during the post-war era. Impact[edit] German Expressionism. German Expressionism refers to a number of related creative movements beginning in Germany before the First World War that reached a peak in Berlin, during the 1920s. These developments in Germany were part of a larger Expressionist movement in north and central European culture in fields such as architecture, painting and cinema. German Expressionist painting produced a great number of works, and led to Neo-expressionism.

History[edit] 1910s–1930s[edit] The German Expressionist movement was largely confined to Germany due to the isolation the country experienced during World War I. In 1916, the government had banned more foreign films in the nation. Besides the films' popularity within Germany, by 1922 the international audience had begun to appreciate German cinema, in part due to a decreasing anti-German sentiment following the end of World War I. The extreme anti-realism of Expressionism was short-lived, fading away after only a few years. Influence and legacy[edit] See also[edit] Experimental film. Surrealist cinema.

Midnight movie. Category:New Wave in cinema. Category:Movements in cinema. Film genre. Film noir. Neo-noir. Western (genre) Spaghetti Western. Category:Film genres. World cinema. Cinema of the United States. Cinema of Japan. Cinema of Hong Kong. Cinema of China. Cinema of Korea. Cinema of Taiwan. Cinema of the Soviet Union. Cinema of Germany. List of cinema of the world. 1970s in film.