So what is there to this Indian Brahmin birdsong pre-oral tradition thing I just heard? I haven’t seen this program but I’ve studied Vedic recitations in some depth. While I personally do not believe that any of the mantras being spoken anywhere are “pre-language” (whatever they mean by that) it probably popped up in this program because it is a pretty important theological point in Sanskritic Brahmin Hinduism. In this context (the status of the Veda varies enormously within Hinduism) the Veda is the Word, the essence of the divine principal that is the fundamental building block of reality; true, unlimited, and eternal. It can be defined with the creator principle that brought forth our present reality and functions as the “divine language” that serves as the blueprint for the universe.
Direct democracy Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on, etc.) policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives. Depending on the particular system in use, it might entail passing executive decisions, the use of sortition, making laws, directly electing or dismissing officials and conducting trials. Two leading forms of direct democracy are participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Most countries that are representative democracies allow for three forms of political action that provide limited direct democracy: referendum (plebiscite), initiative, and recall. Referendums can include the ability to hold a binding vote on whether a given law should be rejected.
Welcome - Marx & Philosophy Society Marx & Philosophy Society The Marx and Philosophy Society aims to encourage scholarly engagement with, and creative development of, the philosophical and foundational aspects of Marx's work. The society welcomes contributions from any philosophical or political position Animal language Animal language are forms of non-human animal communication that show similarities to human language. Animal communication may be considered complex enough to be called a form of language if: the inventory of signs is large, the signs are relatively arbitrary, and the animals produce them with a degree of volition (as opposed to conditioned instincts). Animal communication can also be evidenced through the use of lexigrams (as used by chimpanzees and bonobos) in addition to signs. While the term "animal language" is widely used, researchers agree that animal languages are not as complex or expressive as human language. Some researchers, including the linguist Charles Hockett, argue that there are significant differences separating human language from animal communication even at its most complex, and that the underlying principles are not related. Accordingly, linguist Thomas A. Marc Hauser, Noam Chomsky, and W.
Bertrand Russell, Prologue of Autobiography The Prologue to Bertrand Russell's Autobiography Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a great ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair. I have sought love, first, because it brings ecstasy - ecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because it relieves loneliness--that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss.
Narrating the Aberration. Democracy is best defined, in my opinion, by Lincoln’s timeless phrase from his Gettysburg Address as ‘government of the people, by the people, for the people’. The key phrase in this definition is ‘the people’. It is a bit sparse but that eliminates any opening for sophistry or legalistic parsing or, heaven forfend, theological mental reservations. ‘The people’ means just that, ‘the people’. Response to Quentin D. Atkinson - Languages Of The World We would like to thank Quentin D. Atkinson for taking the time to respond to our critique of the Science article by Bouckaert et al., of which he is one of the authors. While he appears to restate their team’s position rather than address specific criticisms that we had voiced, we feel that we should address those issues that Atkinson brings up in defense of their methodology. According to Atkinson, “the inferences based on linguistic palaeontology [i.e. the approach we advocate in our critique] have thus far failed to satisfy … three requirements”.
Kenneth Tynan Kenneth Peacock Tynan (2 April 1927 – 26 July 1980) was an English theatre critic and writer. Making his initial impact as a critic at The Observer (1954–58, 1960–63), he praised Osborne's Look Back in Anger (1956), and encouraged the emerging wave of British theatrical talent. In 1963, Tynan was appointed as the new National Theatre Company's literary manager. UCL Institute for Security and Resilience Studies Resilience is the enduring power of a body or bodies for transformation, renewal and recovery through the flux of interactions and flow of events. Welcome to the Institute for Security & Resilience Studies (ISRS). In a globalised, highly networked world, the challenges of security and resilience are faced by us all - whether political leaders, public officials, academics, or developers and suppliers of products and services. The prospects are more exciting than ever.
Origin of language The origin of language in the human species has been the topic of scholarly discussions for several centuries. In spite of this, there is no consensus on the ultimate origin or age of human language. One problem makes the topic difficult to study: the lack of direct evidence. Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record, archaeological evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language acquisition, and comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among other animals (particularly other primates). Many argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the origins of modern human behavior, but there is little agreement about the implications and directionality of this connection. This shortage of empirical evidence has led many scholars to regard the entire topic as unsuitable for serious study.
W. H. D. Rouse Life Born in Calcutta, India on 30 May 1863, when the family returned home on leave to Britain Rouse was sent to Regent's Park College in London, where he studied as a lay student. In 1881 he gained a scholarship to Christ's College, Cambridge. Rouse gained a double first in the Classical Tripos at the University of Cambridge, where he also studied Sanskrit. He became a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge in 1888.
European Citizens Initiative for an Unconditional Basic Income » European Initiative for Basic Income On January 14th 2013, the European Commission accepted our European Citizens’ Initiative hence triggering a one-year campaign involving all countries in the European Union. Before January 14, 2014, we have to reach 500 million citizens within the European Union and collect one million statements of support with minimum numbers reached for at least 7 member states. 20 member states are already participating in this initiative. If we collect one million statements of support for Basic Income from the 500 million inhabitants of the European Union, the European Commission will have to examine our initiative carefully and arrange for a public hearing in the European Parliament. This post is also available in: Danish, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Estonian, Finnish, Greek, Hungarian, Luxemburgish, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal), Romanian, Slovak, Slovenian, Swedish