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Biology

Biology
History The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, and the causes through which they have been effected. The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre]. Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, and China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece.[6] While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC), it was Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Foundations of modern biology Cell theory Main article: Cell theory Genetics

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Positivist school In criminology, the Positivist School has attempted to find scientific objectivity for the measurement and quantification of criminal behavior. As the scientific method became the major paradigm in the search for all knowledge, the Classical School's social philosophy was replaced by the quest for scientific laws that would be discovered by experts. It is divided into Biological, Psychological and Social. Biological positivism[edit] If Charles Darwin's Theory of evolution was scientific as applied to animals, the same approach should be applied to "man" as an "animal". Physical characteristics[edit]

Biology Study Guides - SparkNotes Home → SparkNotes → Biology Study Guides Biology Subjects Cell Structure Why Do Some Clovers Have Four Leaves? The leaves of clover plants are said to hold the luck o' the Irish when they sport four leaves. This myth likely arose because four-leaf clovers are rare finds — the result of an equally rare genetic mutation in the clover plant. There are about 300 species in the clover genus Trifolium, or trefoil, so named because the plants usually have three leaves, or technically, leaflets. The ones you typically find in North America are white clover (Trifolium repens).

Thich Nhat Hanh’s 5 Techniques For Mastering Mindfulness Thich Nhat Hanh is a Vietnamese Buddhist Monk, as well as peace activist and author. He is famous for coining the term ‘Engaged Buddhism,’ inspired by the suffering observed during the Vietnam War and outline in his book Vietnam: Lotus in a Sea of Fire. Thay (‘teacher’), as he is known to his devotees, is a highly influential figure in the development of Buddhism in Western nations. One of his most well-known achievements is the development of the Five Mindfulness Trainings, which, according to Plum Village: …represent the Buddhist vision for a global spirituality and ethic. They are a concrete expression of the Buddha’s teachings on the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path, the path of right understanding and true love, leading to healing, transformation, and happiness for ourselves and for the world.

Positivism Positivism is a philosophy of science based on the view that information derived from logical and mathematical treatments and reports of sensory experience is the exclusive source of all authoritative knowledge,[1] and that there is valid knowledge (truth) only in scientific knowledge.[2] Verified data received from the senses are known as empirical evidence.[1] This view holds that society, like the physical world, operates according to general laws. Introspective and intuitive knowledge is rejected. Although the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of Western thought,[3] the modern sense of the approach was developed by the philosopher and founding sociologist Auguste Comte in the early 19th century.[4] Comte argued that, much as the physical world operates according to gravity and other absolute laws, so also does society.[5] Etymology[edit] Overview[edit]

30 Ways to Define Leadership Credit: Rawpixel/Shutterstock Webster's Dictionary defines leadership as "the power or ability to lead other people," but for most people, there's a lot more to it than that. Ask anyone what it means to be a leader, and you'll likely hear something unique every time. That's because everyone has his or her own idea of what leadership is, but not every boss leads a team the same way. Green World  "For in the true nature of things, if we rightly consider, every green tree is far more glorious than if it were made of gold and silver." ~ Martin Luther Photo Credit: GoodFon.ru Crimes against humanity Crimes against humanity, as defined by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Explanatory Memorandum, "are particularly odious offences in that they constitute a serious attack on human dignity or a grave humiliation or degradation of human beings."[1] They are not isolated or sporadic events, but are part either of a government policy (although the perpetrators need not identify themselves with this policy) or of a wide practice of atrocities tolerated or condoned by a government or a de facto authority. Murder; massacres; dehumanization; extermination; human experimentation; extrajudicial punishments; death squads; military use of children; kidnappings; unjust imprisonment; slavery; cannibalism, torture; rape; political, racial, or religious persecution; and other inhumane acts reach the threshold of crimes against humanity only if they are part of a widespread or systematic practice. Abolition of the slave trade[edit] First use[edit]

Cesare Lombroso Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; Italian: [ˈtʃɛzare lombˈroso]; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist, physician, and founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology. Lombroso rejected the established Classical School, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature. Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, early eugenics, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage, or atavistic. Falser Words Were Never Spoken IN a coffee shop not long ago, I saw a mug with an inscription from Henry David Thoreau: “Go confidently in the direction of your dreams! Live the life you’ve imagined.” At least it said the words were Thoreau’s. But the attribution seemed a bit suspect. Thoreau, after all, was not known for his liberal use of exclamation points.

The Inner Life Of The Cell. The Human Cell Animation. XVIVO In 2006, Harvard University teamed up with XVIVO to develop an animation that would take their cellular biology students on a journey through the microscopic world of a cell. The Inner Life of the Cell follows a white blood cell’s movement along the endothelium and its response to an external stimulus — a process known as leukocyte extravasation. This widely-acclaimed piece is the first in a series of animations XVIVO has created for Harvard’s BioVisions.

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