It's All About Carbon If you have questions about climate change, please e-mail them to All Things Considered or call the show at 202-898-2395. When the subject is global warming, our mood is usually "uh-oh." Which makes sense, because a warmer Earth will lead to all kinds of disruptions and expensive adjustments that we could do without. NPR and National Geographic take a year-long journey around the globe to explore how climate is shaping people and people are exploring climate. Odd Todd But there is another way to think about all of this. What we have done here is a chemistry lesson, one that begins with the elemental cause of global warming: the behavior of the carbon atom. And since carbon atoms are rather small, we have turned our atom into a cartoon. This is the introductory segment of a five-part series that explains how carbon atoms form bonds, break apart and create the conditions that can lead to global warming. In this, the first lesson, we introduce our atom. So take a look.
Chemical Bonds Selected by the SciLinks program, a service of National Science Teachers Association. Copyright 2001. For an explanation of the significance of this logo go to: Because of the tendency of atoms to complete their outer energy shells with the stable number of electrons for each shell, atoms with incomplete shells have a tendency to gain electrons, lose electrons or share electrons. Atoms that have gained or lost electrons become ions. Oppositely charged ions form ionic bonds. Ionic bonds The following animation shows how ions of sodium and chlorine are formed. The oppositely charged ions in the animation will be attracted to each other and form an ionic bond. Covalent bonds Atoms can fill their outer shells by sharing electrons. In the animation, two hydrogen atoms share each other's electrons and form a molecule of hydrogen. Covalent bonds can be nonpolar, or polar. Hydrogen bonds Back to Chemistry Back to Steinberg Web Pages © Dr.
Types of Bonds Custom Search Bonding Links <-- Back to electronegativity Electronegativity Differences between atoms can be used to determine the type of bonding that occurs. If the difference between 2 atoms is small (less than 1.7) the bond is covalent. If the difference is large (greater than 1.7) the bond is considered ionic. Exceptions- HF is covalent not ionic (difference of 1.9) BF3 is covalent (difference of 2.0) BeF2 is covalent (difference of 2.5) Covalently bonded atoms will share their electrons in order to form a stable outer electron shell that has 8 electrons. This is called an octet of electrons. Ionic is 1 minute in. Ionic bonded atoms will transfer one or more electrons from the less electronegative element (a metal) to the more electronegative element (a nonmetal) as to achieve an octect of electrons. This results in the formation of 2 ions. The bond is a strong electrostatic attraction formed by 2 opposing ions. Chemical Demonstration Videos
DNA-RNA-Protein DNA carries the genetic information of a cell and consists of thousands of genes. Each gene serves as a recipe on how to build a protein molecule. Proteins perform important tasks for the cell functions or serve as building blocks. The flow of information from the genes determines the protein composition and thereby the functions of the cell. The DNA is situated in the nucleus, organized into chromosomes. The document has two levels, basic and advanced. Learn how to navigate in the document
Membranes Organize Cellular Complexity Membranes organize proteins and other molecules enabling the cell to run much more efficiently than if everything were floating freely. Mitochondrial membranes, for example, keep protein assembly lines together for efficient energy production. And the lysosome safely holds enzymes that would destroy essential proteins if released into the cytoplasm. Membrane-enclosed vesicles form packages for cargo so that they may quickly and efficiently reach their destinations. Real life complexity inside an insulin-producing pancreas cell. Image courtesy of Dr. Phospholipids provide the framework for all membranes in the cell. When phospholipids are placed into water, they organize themselves into a structure called a bilayer. The shape and chemical nature of phospholipids drives them to organize themselves one level further. Phospholipid membranes form a barrier that most molecules cannot cross. Membrane proteins represent a large number of proteins with diverse functions.
The Cytoskeleton Cells contain elaborate arrays of protein fibers that serve such functions as: establishing cell shape providing mechanical strength locomotion chromosome separation in mitosis and meiosisintracellular transport of organelles The cytoskeleton is made up of three kinds of protein filaments: Actin filaments (also called microfilaments) Intermediate filaments and Microtubules Actin Filaments Monomers of the protein actin polymerize to form long, thin fibers. These are about 8 nm in diameter and, being the thinnest of the cytoskeletal filaments, are also called microfilaments. (In skeletal muscle fibers they are called "thin" filaments.) Intermediate Filaments These cytoplasmic fibers average 10 nm in diameter (and thus are "intermediate" in size between actin filaments (8 nm) and microtubules (25 nm)(as well as of the thick filaments of skeletal muscle fibers). There are several types of intermediate filament, each constructed from one or more proteins characteristic of it. Microtubules
Cell Size and Scale Some cells are visible to the unaided eye The smallest objects that the unaided human eye can see are about 0.1 mm long. That means that under the right conditions, you might be able to see an ameoba proteus, a human egg, and a paramecium without using magnification. A magnifying glass can help you to see them more clearly, but they will still look tiny. Smaller cells are easily visible under a light microscope. It's even possible to make out structures within the cell, such as the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts. To see anything smaller than 500 nm, you will need an electron microscope. Adenine The label on the nucleotide is not quite accurate. How can an X chromosome be nearly as big as the head of the sperm cell? No, this isn't a mistake. The X chromosome is shown here in a condensed state, as it would appear in a cell that's going through mitosis. A chromosome is made up of genetic material (one long piece of DNA) wrapped around structural support proteins (histones). Carbon
Parts of the Cell - Cells Alive! For life all cells have basic needs. Cells have diverged in their structure and function to accommodate these survival requirements. Here are some KEY TERMS to help you think, explore and search for similarities and significant differences that have become the characteristics of eukaryote (animal, plant) and prokaryotic (bacteria) cells. Examples might be searching: eukaryote prokaryote reproduction or animal plant cell energy. Reproduction / cell division Energy trapping, storage and consumption Form / shape / structure Cell specialization Compartmentalization of cell functions Communication within and beyond the cell Cell / organism survival Organic chemistry Structure of the organic methane molecule, the simplest hydrocarbon compound Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
Scientists discover double meaning in genetic code Scientists have discovered a second code hiding within DNA. This second code contains information that changes how scientists read the instructions contained in DNA and interpret mutations to make sense of health and disease. High resolutionClick to expand Genome scientist Dr. A research team led by Dr. Read the research paper. The work is part of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project, also known as ENCODE. Since the genetic code was deciphered in the 1960s, scientists have assumed that it was used exclusively to write information about proteins. “For over 40 years we have assumed that DNA changes affecting the genetic code solely impact how proteins are made,” said Stamatoyannopoulos. The genetic code uses a 64-letter alphabet called codons. The discovery of duons has major implications for how scientists and physicians interpret a patient’s genome and will open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Stephanie H. Tagged with: DNA, ENCODE, genome
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