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Pennefather Treaties. How the Dawes Act Stole 90 Million Acres of Native American Land. Uncovered tracks: The bloody legacy of Canada’s railways. Thousands of tourists flock to Craigellachie’s Last Spike Gift Shoppe each year.

Uncovered tracks: The bloody legacy of Canada’s railways

They pose for photos by the tracks and take turns re-enacting the 1885 photograph of Donald Smith driving in the last spike. But several hundred kilometres north, the Coastal GasLink pipeline is charging through the Wet’suwet’en territories that brought Canadian railways to a grinding halt. Nov. 7 marked the 135th anniversary of the Canadian Pacific Railway’s completion. Although the railway has always been a private corporation, it was — and remains — a wrought iron symbol of Confederation. But for First Nations peoples, Canada’s railways are vehicles for expropriation. “Hot metal screaming through the valleys, echoing loud enough to wake the mountains,” the voice of Wet’suwet’en poet Jennifer Wickham shakes as she recites a poem from her collection, I’m a Real Skin. Historic Treaties and Treaty First Nations in Canada Infographic.

This Tribal Map Of America Reveals Whose Land You're Actually Living On. October 12th marks Columbus Day, commemorating the landing of Christopher Columbus in the Americas in 1492.

This Tribal Map Of America Reveals Whose Land You're Actually Living On

Is this occasion worth celebrating, though? Well, there are many different opinions out there. Turns out, a YouGov poll of more than 7,000 US adults found that Americans narrowly view the European explorer as more of a villain (40%) than a hero (32%). Moreover, these past few years, more and more US cities have been moving to rename the holiday Indigenous People’s Day as well as removing Christopher Columbus statues. Despite all the controversial discussions, though the thing that we all could do around this time is to try our best to educate ourselves. Earliest evidence for humans in the Americas. Image copyright Ciprian Ardelean Humans settled in the Americas much earlier than previously thought, according to new finds from Mexico.

Earliest evidence for humans in the Americas

They suggest people were living there 33,000 years ago, twice the widely accepted age for the earliest settlement of the Americas. The results are based on work at Chiquihuite Cave, a high-altitude rock shelter in central Mexico. Archaeologists found thousands of stone tools suggesting the cave was used by people for at least 20,000 years. Ice age.

Current

Photo: National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institute In the early age of photography, portraits of people were few and far between, but they had one thing in common: serious faces.

Nowadays, you’d expect to see an emotionless face in these old-timey photographs, which is why the recent discovery of an image of a young woman smiling from nearly 130 years ago is really unusual and utterly fascinating. The Man Who Documented Native American Cultures.

Edward Sheriff Curtis The Man Who Documented Native American Cultures by Chris Nelson Born on a Wisconsin farm in 1868, Edward Sheriff Curtis became fascinated with photography early on, building his own camera at the age 10.

The Man Who Documented Native American Cultures

As a teenager his family relocated to Seattle, where he photographed Princess Angeline (aka Kickisomlo), the daughter of the Duwamish chief Seattle, after whom the city is named. Curtis recognized his life's calling as a documentarian of Native American cultures and quickly joined expeditions to Montana and Alaska to do just that. In 1906, Curtis was approached by the financier J.P.

Though Curtis often romanticized his subjects, at times photographing them in ceremonial attire not regularly worn and wigs to conceal contemporary hair styles, he was an outspoken opponent of the devastating use of relocation and reservations. Apsaroke, 1908 Sioux, 1907. Top 10 Navajo Swear Words. Many articles ~ Indians.org click 2x. Interactive map: Loss of Indian land.

The Vault is Slate's history blog.

Interactive map: Loss of Indian land

Like us on Facebook, follow us on Twitter @slatevault, and find us on Tumblr. Find out more about what this space is all about here. This interactive map, produced by University of Georgia historian Claudio Saunt to accompany his new book West of the Revolution: An Uncommon History of 1776, offers a time-lapse vision of the transfer of Indian land between 1776 and 1887. American Indian Tribes Map. Abenaki Acoma Algonquin Anishinaabe Apache Arapaho Assiniboine Athabascan Aztec Blackfeet Blackfoot Caddo Cayuga Cheraw Cheyenne Chickasaw Chicora Chinook Chippewa Choctaw Chumash Coeur d'Alene Comanche Costanoan Cree Creek (Muskogee) Crow Dakota Delaware Dene Edisto Euchee Flathead Gros Ventre Gwitchan Haida Haudenosaunee Havasupai Hidatsa Ho-Chunk Hopi Huron Iowa Iroquois Kaw Kawaiisu Kickapoo Kiowa Lakota Lenape Lumbee Maliseet Mandan Mattaponi Maya Menominee Metis MicMac Mojave Mohawk Mohegan Mohican Monacan Muscogee Nanticokes Narragansett Navajo Nez Perce Nipmuc Odawa Ohlone Ojibwe Omaha OneidaOnondaga Osage Paiute Pima Ponca Potawatomi Powhatan Pueblo Quapaw Sac Salish Seminole Seneca Shawnee Shinnecock ShoshoneSioux Tsalagi Tuscarora Ute Wea Wichita Winnebago Wyandot Yavapai Yokut Zuni " I was born upon the prairie where the wind blew free, and there was nothing to break the light of the sun.

American Indian Tribes Map

I was born where there were no enclosures, and where everything drew free breath. The Invasion of America: How the United States Took Over an Eighth of the World. Black Elk. Heȟáka Sápa (Black Elk) (December 1, 1863 – August 19, 1950)[1] was a famous wičháša wakȟáŋ (medicine man and holy man) and heyoka of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux) who lived in the present-day United States, primarily South Dakota.

Black Elk

He was a second cousin of the war leader Crazy Horse. Near the end of his life, Black Elk met with amateur ethnologist John Neihardt and recounted to him his religious vision, events from his life, and details of Lakota culture. Neihardt edited a translated record and published Black Elk Speaks in 1932. Black Elk Speaks. Black Elk Speaks is a 1932 book by John G.

Black Elk Speaks

Neihardt, an American poet and writer, who relates the story of Black Elk, an Oglala Lakota medicine man. Black Elk spoke in Lakota and Black Elk's son, Ben Black Elk, who was present during the talks, translated his father's words into English.[1] Neihardt made notes during these talks which he later used as the basis for his book.[2] The prominent psychologist Carl Jung read the book in the 1930s and urged its translation into German; in 1955, it was published as Ich rufe mein Volk (I Call My People).[3] Reprinted in the US in 1961, with a 1988 edition named Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux, as told through John G. Neihardt (Flaming Rainbow) and a State University of New York Press 2008 Premier Edition annotated by Lakota scholar Raymond DeMallie, the book has found an international audience. Background[edit]

El Norte review: an epic and timely history of Hispanic North America. The subtitle of Carrie Gibson’s book is The Epic and Forgotten Story of Hispanic North America.

El Norte review: an epic and timely history of Hispanic North America

El Norte lives up to it. These 437 pages are an important correction to centuries of American history which have mostly neglected the vital role of Spanish pioneers (and Native Americans) in favor of settlers from England, Ireland and Scotland. As the author quotes Walt Whitman, Americans long ago tacitly abandoned themselves “to the notion that our United States have been fashioned from the British Islands … which is a great mistake … Two Spirits, One Heart, Five Genders. Those who arrived in the Native American Garden of Eden had never seen a land so uncorrupted. The Europeans saw new geography, new plants, new animals, but the most perplexing curiosity to these people were the Original Peoples and our ways of life. Of all of the foreign life ways Indians held, one of the first the Europeans targeted for elimination was the Two Spirit tradition among Native American cultures. At the point of contact, all Native American societies acknowledged three to five gender roles: Female, male, Two Spirit female, Two Spirit male and transgendered.

LGBT Native Americans wanting to be identified within their respective tribes and not grouped with other races officially adopted the term “Two Spirit” from the Ojibwe language in Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1989. Each tribe has their own specific term, but there was a need for a universal term that the general population could understand. Scientists reveal 10,000-year-old mummy is Native American ancestor. Scientists attempting to map out the historical migrations of North and South America by analysing ancient bones have revealed that a 10,000-year-old skeleton unearthed in a cave in Nevada is the ancestor of a Native American tribe. The iconic skeleton, known as the “Spirit Cave mummy”, was reburied this summer by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone people in Nevada, bringing closure to a decades-long legal dispute with anthropologists who fought for it to remain on display in a museum.

DNA painstakingly extracted from the ancient skull proved the skeleton was an ancestor of the tribe and discredited a longstanding theory that the individual was from a group of “Paleoamericans” that existed in North America before Native Americans. The full genetic details of the skeleton, which is the world’s oldest natural mummy, are published as part of a wide-ranging international study of the ancestry of North and South America. . … we have a small favour to ask. Maps power to shape history - early native americans click 2x. Native cartography: a bold mapmaking project that challenges Western notions of place.

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Yup'ik artist. Dance mask. Alaska, ca. 1916–18. Wood, pigment, and vegetal fiber, 20 1/2 x 14 x 8 in. (52.1 x 35.6 x 20.3 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, The Charles and Valerie Diker Collection of Native American Art, Promised Gift of Charles and Valerie Diker Tsimshian artist. Louisa Keyser (Washoe, ca. 1831–1925). Non indigenous settlement click 2x. Maps of Native American Tribes and Reservations in the United States. Native American Resources for Teachers. Earth - The first people who populated the Americas. Hin-ma-toe Ya-lut-kiht (aka Thunder... - Native North American Indian - Old Photos. The Great Breakup: The First Arrivals to the Americas Split Into Two Groups. Clever Rock Science Provides New Possibilities for Migration to the Americas. Prehistoric Cliffside Dwellings of the Pueblo People- takes a minute to load. Humans are responsible for the sudden disappearance of world's largest mammals.

9 Mile Canyon petroglyphs click 2x. How Native American Slaveholders Complicate the Trail of Tears Narrative. The Map Of Native American Tribes You've Never Seen Before : Code Switch. Aaron Carapella, a self-taught mapmaker in Warner, Okla., has designed a map of Native American tribes showing their locations before first contact with Europeans. Hansi Lo Wang/NPR hide caption. Native America before European Colonization. Catlinite Pipes, Page 1. Also known as the Panati, the Bannock... - Native North American Indian - Old Photos. 500 Nations - The story of native Americans - part I. 500 Nations - The story of native Americans - part II. 500 nations (part 3 of 4) 500 Nations Part 4. American Indians. First Peoples of Canada - Our Origins, Origin Stories. Louisiana Purchase was used to cover theft of Indigenous People's land.

Wikimedia Commons/White House Historical Association It’s a familiar chapter in our history, part of the triumphant narrative of westward expansion: In 1803, the United States bought a massive chunk of North America, and we got it for a song. Spain had ceded the Louisiana Territory to France, and Napoleon, in turn, offloaded it to American diplomats in Paris after the Haitian Revolution ruined his plans for the New World.

Vaguely defined at the time as the western watershed of the Mississippi River, and later pegged at about 827,000 square miles, the acquisition nearly doubled the national domain for a mere $15 million, or roughly $309 million in today’s dollars. How Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce became a hero of civil rights advocates. Edward S. S.C. Gwynne - Comanche Nation: The Rise And Fall Of An 'Empire' The Mohawks Who Built Manhattan (Photos) For generations, Mohawk Indians have left their reservations in or near Canada to raise skyscrapers in the heart of New York City.

First Humans Entered the Americas Along the Coast. ‘Slam-dunk’ find puts hunter-gatherers in Florida 14,500 years ago. Native American populations descend from three key migrations, scientists say. Native North American Indian - Old Photos - Journal. A Choctaw woman. Extinction of early natives by Europeans. Ancient Siberian genome reveals genetic origins of Native Americans. Tribal Nations Map NA. Bison - Wikipedia. We were all told they walked over a land bridge from Asia. Now that theory’s being called into question. The Map Of Native American Tribes You've Never Seen Before : Code Switch. The Little-Known History of the Forced Sterilization of Native American Women. Fight the Power: 100 Heroes of Native Resistance, Part 1. 13th century Maya codex, long shrouded in controversy, proves genuine.

Native North American Indian - Old Photos - Journal. Hidden codex may reveal secrets of life in Mexico before Spanish conquest. In Search of the Lost Empire of the Maya. Native American Indian Legends A-B. "Why Save a Language" (2006) Haida culture is alive and well on Haida Gwaii. One Word - Episode 24: Redskin (Native Americans) One Word - Episode 28: Language (Native Americans) 9 Examples of Indigenous Sense in a Nonsensical Time. DNA Analysis Shows Native American Genealogy. Cultures and peoples of North America. Secrets of the Dead 2 clicks for video. Native Intelligence - 2 clicks please. Ira Hayes – Iwo Jima Flag Raiser & Very Reluctant Hero.

Native American Round Dance Music. Various videos on Native American life and spirituality. 'Where Are Your Guts?': Johnny Cash’s Little-Known Fight for Native Americans. Native American Quotes, Native American Wisdom Sayings. Sarah Winnemucca - Journalist. American Indian Biography: Sarah Winnemucca. Crimes against native culture and children. Why American Indians Are Still Not Fairly Represented.