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Native America before European Colonization

Native America before European Colonization

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7FItlStGMY4

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‘Slam-dunk’ find puts hunter-gatherers in Florida 14,500 years ago Big game hunters of the Clovis culture may have just gotten the final blow to their reputation as North America’s earliest settlers. At least 1,000 years before Clovis people roamed the Great Plains, a group of hunter-gatherers either butchered a mastodon or scavenged its carcass on Florida’s Gulf Coast. Stone tools discovered in an underwater sinkhole in the Aucilla River show that people were present at the once-dry Page-Ladson site about 14,550 years ago, reports a team led by geoarchaeologists Jessi Halligan of Florida State University in Tallahassee and Michael Waters of Texas A&M University in College Station.

Maize - History and Domestication of American Corn Maize (Zea mays) is a plant of enormous modern-day economic importance as foodstuff and alternative energy source. Scholars agree maize was derived from the plant teosinte (Zea mays spp. parviglumis) in central America at least as early 9,000 years ago. In the Americas, maize is called corn, somewhat confusingly for the rest of the English-speaking world, where 'corn' refers to the seeds of any grain, including barley, wheat or rye. The process of domesticating maize radically changed it from its origins. NITV Five reasons why the North Dakota pipeline fight will continue in 2017 In December 2016, the Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) denied an easement that would have permitted the company Energy Transfer Partners (ETP) to complete one of the final segments of the 1,100-mile Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL), which seeks to connect the oil fields of North Dakota with terminals and refineries in Illinois. The denial of ACE’s easement is undoubtedly a victory for the Standing Rock Sioux. The tribe and its allies in the #NoDAPL movement opposed the pipeline over risks to water quality, the destruction of cultural heritage and the injustice of, once again, having to make sacrifices for the economic gains of others. David Archambault II, chair of the tribe, thanked those who had been gathering for months at the construction site, saying their “purpose had been served,” and that they may leave now.

A Brief History of Jim Crow “I can ride in first-class cars on the railroads and in the streets,” wrote journalist T. McCants Stewart. “I can stop in and drink a glass of soda and be more politely waited upon than in some parts of New England.” Perhaps Stewart’s comments don’t seem newsworthy. Flight to Freedom: Introduction Slavery, according to historian and sociologist Orlando Patterson, was social death. This was especially so of the slavery practiced in the United States from its very founding as a colonial empire in 1609, to 1865, when ended the bloody struggle which abolished the institution and united the nation. During the three and one-half centuries of slavery's existence, millions of African-descended people were torn from their homes, separated from family and community, and brutally put to the lash for profit. These Africans resisted. In nearly every conceivable way, they registered their protest against their enslavement.

On Columbus Day, support grows for Indigenous Peoples Day Since Columbus Day 2015, at least 14 communities in the United States have passed measures designating the second Monday in October Indigenous Peoples Day. The changes build on recent efforts to shift the day's focus from the Italian explorer, beginning in big cities including Seattle, Minneapolis and Albuquerque, and spreading to counties and school districts. "Indigenous Peoples Day represents a shift in consciousness," said Dr. Leo Killsback, a citizen of the Northern Cheyenne Nation and assistant professor of American Indian Studies at Arizona State University.

Indians of the Midwest Ceremonial centers built by American Indians from about 2,200 to 1,600 years ago existed in what is now Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, as well as elsewhere. The people who built these centers had previously lived more simply as hunters and fisherman and some had begun to domesticate native plants, such as goosefoot, which provided a more reliable food supply. Some communities had begun to make pottery and to bury their dead in or under conical mounds made of earth. Then, a new religion swept through the region, attracting followers who built ceremonial centers along rivers and lakes. They lived in small settlements of kinspeople led by senior family members.

10 Sioux Indian Chief Quotes That Shatter Our Idea of 'Modern' Culture Wisdom Pills GuestWaking Times Luther Standing Bear was an Oglala Lakota (Sioux) Chief who, among a few rare others such as Charles Eastman, Black Elk and Gertrude Bonnin occupied the rift between the way of life of the Indigenous people of the Great Plains before, and during, the arrival and subsequent spread of the European pioneers. Raised in the traditions of his people until the age of eleven, he was then educated at the Carlisle Indian Industrial Boarding School of Pennsylvania, where he learned the english language and way of life. Silverites, Populists, and the Movement for Free Silver Gold bugs v. Silverites Political battles over currency issues became intensely divisive during the last quarter of the 19th century as industrialization accelerated in the Northeast, while the South and newly settled areas of the Midwest remained dependent on farming. From 1873 through the late 1890s, the U.S. suffered through two major economic depressions that heightened sectional and class conflict. By the 1896 election, designated by historian Walter Dean Burnham as “the first confrontation . . . among organized political forces over industrial capitalism,” positions on currency had solidified into a “battle of the standards.”

Immigration: Stories of Yesterday and Today and Ellis Island World War II and the Postwar Period The United States entered World War II in 1942. During the war, immigration decreased. There was fighting in Europe, transportation was interrupted, and the American consulates weren't open. The Map Of Native American Tribes You've Never Seen Before : Code Switch Aaron Carapella, a self-taught mapmaker in Warner, Okla., has designed a map of Native American tribes showing their locations before first contact with Europeans. Hansi Lo Wang/NPR hide caption toggle caption Hansi Lo Wang/NPR Aaron Carapella, a self-taught mapmaker in Warner, Okla., has designed a map of Native American tribes showing their locations before first contact with Europeans.

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