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Ocean Exploration Trust. Happywhale. Plankton Portal. Polar Bear Attacks. Answered by Dr.

Polar Bear Attacks

Tom Smith, professor of biological sciences at Brigham Young University and a scientific advisor to PBI. Q: I'm going camping in the Arctic this summer and want to be prepared for encounters with polar bears. How often do polar bears attack? Vostok: Lake Under Antarctic Ice. Deep, dark and mysterious, Lake Vostok is one of the largest subglacial lakes in the world.

Vostok: Lake Under Antarctic Ice

Once a large surface lake in East Antarctica, Lake Vostok is now buried under more than 2 miles (3.7 kilometers) of ice near Russia's Vostok research station. Covered with ice for millennia, cut off from light and contact with the atmosphere, Lake Vostok is one of the most extreme environments on Earth. "The lake has been ice-covered for at least 15 million years," said Brent Christner, a Louisiana State University biologist who has examined ice cores collected above the lake. In the 1990s, Christner was part of an international team that discovered microbes in frozen lake water collected above Lake Vostok's liquid surface, called accretion ice. The top half-inch (1 centimeter) of the lake surface freezes onto the flowing ice sheet above the lake, scientists think. Subglacial Lake Vostok lies 4000 meters below Vostok Station, in East Antarctica. Below the surface Additional resources. Birds-of-Paradise Project.

Promising solution to plastic pollution. For many people, “plastic” is a one-word analog for environmental disaster.

Promising solution to plastic pollution

It is made from precious petroleum, after all, and once discarded in landfills and oceans, it takes centuries to degrade. Then came apparent salvation: “bioplastics,” durable substances made from renewable cellulose, a plant-based polysaccharide. But problems remained. Plastic-Eating Fungus May Solve World's Waste Problems. OMI: Underwater Noise Pollution Fact Sheets. Aquatic Science: Ocean Acidification. Scientists refer to ocean acidification as the "other carbon dioxide problem", the first being global warming.

Aquatic Science: Ocean Acidification

From tropic reefs to the polar ice-caps, carbon dioxide is acidifying the world's oceans. The large quantity of atmospheric CO2 being absorbed by the world's oceans is making them more acidic than they have been for tens of millions of years. Carbon dioxide is changing the chemistry of the ocean. Since the Industrial Revolution, the ocean has absorbed roughly 1/4 of the carbon dioxide produced by burning fuels and ocean acidity has increased 30%. At first, scientists thought that this would be beneficial, slowing global warming. Thousands of ocean species build protective shells to survive. Shell in polar water predicted for 2100 Corals and plankton play a key factor in ocean food webs. SnotBot Archives. Orchid Observers. Photograph wild orchids and extract data from three centuries of Museum specimens to help us examine what impact climate change is having on the UK’s orchids.

Orchid Observers

Why we are doing the project Fifty-six native species of orchid grow wild in the UK, flowering from April to September. GMO and the Corporate Patenting of Living Organisms: Monsanto’s Patents on Life. By Katherine Paul, Ronnie Cummins In May 2013, the U.S.

GMO and the Corporate Patenting of Living Organisms: Monsanto’s Patents on Life

Supreme Court began hearing arguments in a seed patent infringement case that pits a small farmer from Indiana, 75-year old Vernon Hugh Bowman, against biotech goliath Monsanto. Chimps. “Doomsday Seed Vault” in the Arctic. This article was first published in December 2007.

“Doomsday Seed Vault” in the Arctic

One thing Microsoft founder Bill Gates can’t be accused of is sloth. He was already programming at 14, founded Microsoft at age 20 while still a student at Harvard. By 1995 he had been listed by Forbes as the world’s richest man from being the largest shareholder in his Microsoft, a company which his relentless drive built into a de facto monopoly in software systems for personal computers. In 2006 when most people in such a situation might think of retiring to a quiet Pacific island, Bill Gates decided to devote his energies to his Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the world’s largest ‘transparent’ private foundation as it says, with a whopping $34.6 billion endowment and a legal necessity to spend $1.5 billion a year on charitable projects around the world to maintain its tax free charitable status. Where knowledge grows. Campaign for Responsible Transplantation - Xenotransplantation News and Information.

Biosphere2. The American Journal of Bioethics. Spiders On Drugs. Spiders On Drugs Scientists at the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have turned their attention from the mysteries of the cosmos to a more esoteric area of research: what happens when you get a spider stoned.

Spiders On Drugs

Their experiments have shown that common house spiders spin their webs in different ways according to the psychotropic drug they have been given. Altweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Frankenstein fears after head transplant. A controversial operation to transplant the whole head of a monkey onto a different body has proved a partial success.

Frankenstein fears after head transplant

The scientist behind it wants to do the same thing to humans, but other members of the scientific community have condemned the experiments as "grotesque". Professor Robert White, from Cleveland Ohio, transplanted a whole monkey's head onto another monkey's body, and the animal survived for some time after the operation.