Magic Mushrooms may have Cure for Depression Rare ‘Devil’s Cigar’ fungus discovered in Nara One of the world's rarest fungi, an exotic star-shaped mushroom known to exist at only three locations on Earth, has been discovered in the mountains of Nara prefecture. The Devil's Cigar (a.k.a. "Texas Star") -- known to botanists as Chorioactis geaster -- had been observed only in central Texas and at two remote locations in Japan prior to the recent discovery in Nara. The peculiar fungus is described as a dark brown cigar-shaped capsule that transforms into a tan-colored star when it splits open to release its spores. It is also one of only a few known fungi that produce an audible hiss when releasing spores. First reported in 1893 in Austin, Texas, the curious mushroom appears in a limited area of central Texas each year, and until now, the rare sightings in Japan have occurred in forests in Miyazaki and Kochi prefectures. The recent Nara discovery was made by Masakuni Kimura, curator of a natural history museum in the town of Kawakami (Nara prefecture).
Basidiospore Basidiomycetes form sexual spores externally from a structure called a basidium. Four basidiospores develop on appendages from each basidium. These spores serve as the main air dispersal units for the fungi. The spores are released during periods of high humidity and generally have a night-time or pre-dawn peak concentration in the atmosphere. When basidiospores encounter a favorable substrate, they may germinate, typically by forming hyphae. General structure and shape Basidiospores are generally characterized by an attachment peg (called a hilar appendage) on its surface. Potential opportunist and Pathogen: Depend on genus. Industrial uses: Edible mushrooms are used in the food industry. Potential Toxins produced: Amanitins, monomethyl-hydrazine, muscarine, ibotenic acid, psilocybin. Basidiospores are the result of sexual reproduction and formed on a structure called the basidium. References
Mushrooms, Fungi, Mycology Basidium Schematic showing a basidiomycete mushroom, gill structure, and spore-bearing basidia on the gill margins. A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic, spore-producing structure found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi. The presence of basidia is one of the main characteristic features of the Basidiomycota. A basidium usually bears four sexual spores called basidiospores; occasionally the number may be two or even eight. In a typical basidium, each basidiospore is borne at the tip of a narrow prong or horn called a sterigma (pl. sterigmata), and is forcibly discharged upon maturity. Basidium structure Mechanism of basidiospore discharge In most basidiomycetes, the basidiospores are ballistospores--they are forcibly discharged. Upon maturity of a basidiospore, sugars present in the cell wall begin to serve as condensation loci for water vapor in the air. Evolutionary loss of forcible discharge References Ingold, C.T. 1998. External links
Cyber's Cheep CD-Spindle Grow Tek I orginally did this for fun, It makes a nice simple little grow that is easily hidden. You will need a 1 pint colonized grain jar to make this work. Things you will need 100 CDR spindle, I think everyone that has a CD burner has a few of these laying around! Duck Tape and Knife Spray bottle of distilled water Spray bottle of alcohol Sterile spoon plastic wrap Vermiculite 1/4 cup measuring cup a bowl and a colonized pint of WBS OK Lets start. Next you want to use the ducktape and cover 3" of the bottom of the spindle This works out to be a layer starting at the bottom with a second layer 1/2 over the first. (2" wide ducktape) Don't forget to cover the bottom of the spindle we do not want any light getting in! Take the bottle of alcohol and spray and clean the inside of the spindle. I am using a dental spoon which has been sterilized on an autoclave bag. Mix them in a bowl. Some people will microwave or pasteurize the vermiculite. Now add your vermiculite to bring it up to the tape line.
Basidiocarp Schematic of a typical basidiocarp, showing fruiting body, hymenium and basidia Structure Types Basidiocarps of Ramaria rugosa, a coral fungus Basidiocarps are classified into various types of growth forms based on the degree of differentiation into a stipe, pileus, and hymenophore, as well as the type of hymenophore, if present. Growth forms include: Basic divisions of Agaricomycotina were formerly based entirely upon the growth form of the mushroom. See also Ascocarp External links Evolution & Morphology in the Homobasidiomycetes: The Clade/Morphology Chart by Gary Lincoff & Michael Wood, MykoWeb, November 27, 2005." FungiPhoto.com Mushroom Photo Catalog Conidium Conidia on conidiophores Conidia, sometimes termed asexual chlamydospores, or chlamydoconida  are asexual, non-motile spores of a fungus and are named after the Greek word for dust, skoni. They are also called mitospores due to the way they are generated through the cellular process of mitosis. The two new haploid cells are genetically identical to the haploid parent, and can develop into new organisms if conditions are favorable, and serve in biological dispersal. Asexual reproduction in Ascomycetes (the Phylum Ascomycota) is by the formation of conidia, which are borne on specialized stalks called conidiophores. The morphology of these specialized conidiophores is often distinctive of a specific species and can therefore be used in identification of the species. The terms "microconidia" and "macroconidia" are sometimes used. Conidiogenesis There are two main types of conidium development: Conidia germination Structures for release of conidia See also
Which species can be found growing where and when? Panaeolus cinctulus (aka P. subalteatus) This mushroom is listed first because it is the most common and widely distributed psilocybin mushroom. Found from spring to autumn alone or clustered in lawns, strawpiles, all types of compost, and dung piles in all 50 states and every country in the world. They grow in large numbers on the manure compost piles that are nearby any stable, race track or place where horses are kept. Psilocybe cubensis Found from February to November growing directly from on cow or horse dung, in rich pasture soil, on straw, or on sawdust/dung mixture in Mexico, Cuba, Florida and most other other southern US states and tropical countries. Panaeolus cyanescens Found in early summer through late autumn scattered, grouped, or clustered on cow dung, or rich soil in tropical areas such as Mexico and Hawaii as well as Florida and other southern states. Psilocybe cyanescens Psilocybe ovoideocystidiata Common in the Ohio River Valley from April 15 to June 15. Psilocybe mexicana
Sporangia & Zygosporangia Home >> What fungi are >> How fungi reproduce >> Sexual reproduction >> Sporangia Among the true fungi only the Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota reproduce sexually by means of sporangia. The Chytridiomycota are themselves a diverse group of fungi. They may have simple life histories with zygotic meiosis or, as in the mosquito parasite Coelomomyces, complex diplobiontic cycles. In all cases reproduction is by means of sporangiospores, spores borne inside sporangia that were the site of meiosis of diploid nuclei. The photo at left shows a single sporangium of Chytridium sp. developing on a pollen grain of red pine floating in pond water. Sexual reproduction in the Zygomycota involves the production of zygosporangia and zygospores. The two pictures above show zygospores of Absidia spinosa, a common fungus in soil. Home >> What fungi are >> How fungi reproduce >> Sexual reproduction >> Sporangia
Psilocybe Mushrooms Psilocybe Mushrooms These images appear in the book Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World by Paul Stamets. They are for informational purposes only and should not be used alone for identification. All photographs are copyrighted by Paul Stamets, all rights reserved, not for re-distribution without written permission. Psilocybe azurescens Common Names "Astoriensis" "Flying Saucer Mushroom" "Indigo Psilocybe"Blue Runners" "Blue Angels" Habitat This mushroom naturally grows, often prolifically, along the northern Oregon Coast near Astoria, Oregon, favoring the beachland interface. Psilocybe baeocystis Common Names "Baeos" "Knobby Tops" Habitat Found on decaying conifer mulch, in wood chips, or in lawns with high lignin content. Psilocybe cubensis "Golden Tops" "Cubies" "San Isidros" "Hongos Kentesh" Psilocybe cyanescens "Cyans" "Blue Halos" "Wavy-Capped Psilocybe" Psilocybe cyanofbrillosa "Rhododenron Psilocybe" "Blue-Haired Psilocybe" Psilocybe pelliculosa Psilocybe semilanceata Psilocybe sylvatica