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Crohn's, Colitis, IBS, and IBD

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There is so much overlap between the categories of IBD, IBS, Crohn's and Colitis that I suggest that you look at all of them, and not restrict yourself to one category.

I have divided them only to make it easier to find resources.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Crohn's Disease. Ulcerative Colitis. Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Gut microbiota studies lead to new understandings of IBD. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a set of conditions that includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), parts of the digestive tract become chronically inflamed.

Gut microbiota studies lead to new understandings of IBD

‘Debilitating’ doesn’t begin to describe IBD at its most intense: during a disease flare, someone who normally leads a busy and active life may have to put everything on hold to stay at home, close to the bathroom, battling pain and nausea. Genes are only one part of how IBD arises. The other parts are less clear, but equally important in the quest to understand how to prevent and treat these conditions. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Infographic. IBD, Crohn's disease, and the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute. In the study the researchers sampled and sequenced the microbiome of the gut mucosa and stool.

IBD, Crohn's disease, and the microbiome — The American Microbiome Institute

From this data, they identified specific bacteria that had higher abundances in diseased patients, like Enterobacteriaceae and Veillonellaceae, and others that had lower than normal abundances, such as Clostridiales and Bacteroidales. According to the samples, these relative abundances were more pronounced in the mucosal samples, rather than the stool samples, meaning that the mucosa may play a more important role in Crohn’s pathogenesis and diagnosis. Moreover, children under age 10 did not have large populations of the ‘bad’ bacteria, which were negatively correlated with age. Another important finding from the study is that antibiotic treatment of the Chrohn’s disease further exacerbated the microbial imbalances (dysbiosis), and caused the bad bacteria to proliferate and the good bacteria to die off. A final conclusion of the paper is that the gut mucous is a more accurate signal for IBD.

IBS/IBD – Recent Studies. These are some note from reviewing recent studies.

IBS/IBD – Recent Studies

I view IBS potentially cascading into IBD, UC or Crohn’s disease is some subset of patients. “Findings from epidemiology studies indicate that diets high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables are the most common pattern associated with an increased risk of IBD. Low levels of vitamin D also appear to be a risk factor for IBD. …. Unfortunately, omega 3 supplements have not been shown to decrease the risk of relapse in patients with Crohn’s disease. … Although fiber supplements have not been definitively shown to benefit patients with IBD, soluble fiber is the best way to generate short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which has anti-inflammatory effects. Addition of vitamin D and curcumin [Turmeric] has been shown to increase the efficacy of IBD therapy. The ubiome reports earlier had a variety of unusual species. NOTE: the OTUID is an identifier for the family/species/strain. Effects of Probiotics on Gut Microbiota in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

Low FODMAP diet can decrease abdominal pain in children  Previous research has shown that adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who adopt a low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet show an improvement in symptoms within 2 days.

Low FODMAP diet can decrease abdominal pain in children 

Would the low FODMAP diet have the same effect in childhood IBS? Does the gut microbiota predict the success of the diet in children who respond to this dietary intervention? 33 children with IBS participated in this study. Gut microbial composition and metabolic capacity were assessed at baseline, and then the children were randomised to either a low FODMAP diet or a typical American childhood diet (TACD) for 48 hours. What pediatric IBD patients reveal about inflammation. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) involves aspects of both the host and the microbiota.

What pediatric IBD patients reveal about inflammation

Previous research in adults shows that IBD is associated with microbiota differences, but little is known about this association in pediatric patients. Messages about diet and IBD need to change. When Dr.

Messages about diet and IBD need to change

Deanna Gibson began studying patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), she found it strange that scientists knew very little about how diet — a controllable factor — could alter gut microbes and gut immune responses. “[In] inflammatory bowel diseases, we know that environment is playing a role. Inflammatory Bowel Disease May Be from Mom's Bacteria, not DNA. Your mother's DNA may have determined your eye color, but some traits that you thought came from her may instead have come from the DNA of bacteria she passed on to you soon after birth, a new study finds.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease May Be from Mom's Bacteria, not DNA

The study found that a mother mouse can pass along to her offspring a susceptibility to intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, by way of a gut-residing bacterium called Sutterella, the researchers reported in the journal Nature yesterday (Feb. 16). Scientists have long speculated that a mother can transfer beneficial bacteria to her offspring through the birthing process and then through breast-feeding and kissing. These myriad bacteria species quickly spread and cover an infant's skin, mouth and digestive tract. Viruses in the gut connected to inflammatory bowel disease — The American Microbiome Institute. A new study has shown that the composition of viruses in the gut may play an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).

Viruses in the gut connected to inflammatory bowel disease — The American Microbiome Institute

If you’ve been reading the blog for a while, you’ve seen us write about something called the virome. The virome is the collection of viruses in the body and similarly to the microbiome, it may have profound affects on human health. A gluten free diet and IBD — The American Microbiome Institute. The University of North Carolina recently published the results of a study based on a longitudinal internet survey conducted by the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA).

A gluten free diet and IBD — The American Microbiome Institute

Leaky Gut & Gluten Belly: Bacterial Firebugs Translocate from Your Gut to Your Ever-Growing Visceral Fat Depots - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone. "Leaky gut", for decades one of those concepts, the belief in which divided self-proclaimed "real scientists" from their "hippie" counterparts, has eventually found its way to mainstream science.

Leaky Gut & Gluten Belly: Bacterial Firebugs Translocate from Your Gut to Your Ever-Growing Visceral Fat Depots - SuppVersity: Nutrition and Exercise Science for Everyone

What began with a few tentative studies into the role of a pathologically increased gut permeability in Crohn's disease and co., is about to become a recognized research area with about 150 related publications within the first 9 month of 2011, alone. The study comprised 22 patients with Chron's disease, 17 patients with ulcerative colitis and 21 controls, who were normal weight, had no history of diabetes mellitus and were not being treated with speci fic medications known to modulate visceral fat. Advances in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis: linking host genetics and the microbiome. Family history is a well known risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), a group of diseases that include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). As such, the risk of developing IBD has long been recognised to have a genetic contribution.

This concept has advanced considerably over the past decade as genetic studies have identified numerous loci involved in IBD susceptibility. These studies have identified key cellular pathways in IBD and enhanced our understanding of how these pathways might contribute to disease (figure 1). However, these studies have also made clear that susceptibility alleles are not sufficient on their own to trigger disease and that other genetic and non-genetic risk factors play a role in pathogenesis. New therapies for inflammatory bowel disease: from the bench to the bedside. Silvio Danese Correspondence to Dr Silvio Danese, IBD Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy; sdanese@hotmail.com Abstract.

A better understanding of the impact of TNF and IBD. Yava L. Intestinal microbiota in functional bowel disorders: a Rome foundation report. + Author Affiliations Correspondence to Professor Magnus Simren, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg S-41345, Sweden; magnus.simren@medicine.gu.se Contributors The Working Team was led by MS and GB. All working team members contributed equally to the manuscript. Abstract It is increasingly perceived that gut host–microbial interactions are important elements in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID).

The most convincing evidence to date is the finding that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop in predisposed individuals following a bout of infectious gastroenteritis. Recent advances in inflammatory bowel disease: mucosal immune cells in intestinal inflammation. + Author Affiliations Correspondence to Dr Arthur Kaser, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Level 5 Box 157, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK; ak729@cam.ac.uk Received 25 January 2013 Revised 13 March 2013 Accepted 14 March 2013 Abstract The intestine and its immune system have evolved to meet the extraordinary task of maintaining tolerance to the largest, most complex and diverse microbial commensal habitat, while meticulously attacking and containing even minute numbers of occasionally incoming pathogens. While our understanding is still far from complete, recent studies have provided exciting novel insights into the complex interplay of the many distinct intestinal immune cell types as well as the discovery of entirely new cell subsets.

Introduction Table 1. Vitamin D, immune regulation, the microbiota, and inflammatory bowel disease. Margherita T Cantorna. Email: mxc69@psu.edu.