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Small world experiment

Small world experiment
The "six degrees of separation" model The small-world experiment comprised several experiments conducted by Stanley Milgram and other researchers examining the average path length for social networks of people in the United States. The research was groundbreaking in that it suggested that human society is a small-world-type network characterized by short path-lengths. The experiments are often associated with the phrase "six degrees of separation", although Milgram did not use this term himself. Historical context of the small-world problem[edit] Mathematician Manfred Kochen and political scientist Ithiel de Sola Pool wrote a mathematical manuscript, "Contacts and Influences", while working at the University of Paris in the early 1950s, during a time when Milgram visited and collaborated in their research. Milgram's experiment was conceived in an era when a number of independent threads were converging on the idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected. Results[edit]

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Math algorithm tracks crime, rumours, epidemics to source ( -- A team of EPFL scientists has developed an algorithm that can identify the source of an epidemic or information circulating within a network, a method that could also be used to help with criminal investigations. Investigators are well aware of how difficult it is to trace an unlawful act to its source. The job was arguably easier with old, Mafia-style criminal organizations, as their hierarchical structures more or less resembled predictable family trees. Tal Peleg ou le grand art du maquillage autour des yeux On peut se demander quel qualificatif va le mieux à Tal Peleg : maquilleuse ou peintre, tellement ses créations autour des yeux sont des oeuvres à part entière. Des heures et des heures de travail pour un résultat qui dépasse l’imaginaire et qui pourtant est bien réel. Remarquable. Vincent a ecrit 9001 articles

New research to uncover nuances of networks Feb. 20, 2013 9:01 a.m. When a species disappears from a region, the rest of the ecosystem may flourish or collapse, depending on the role that species played. When a storm rolls across the coast, the power grid might reconfigure itself quickly or leave cities dark for days. A snowstorm might mean business as usual in a hardy city and a severe food shortage in another, depending on the distribution strategies of residents. Each of these systems is a kind of network, with thousands of members and relationships linking them. Understanding how networks behave is key to ensuring their functioning.

US Military Scientists Solve the Fundamental Problem of Viral Marketing Viral messages begin life by infecting a few individuals and then start to spread across a network. The most infectious end up contaminating more or less everybody. Just how and why this happens is the subject of much study and debate. Network scientists know that key factors are the rate at which people become infected, the “connectedness” of the network and how the seed group of individuals, who first become infected, are linked to the rest. It is this seed group that fascinates everybody from marketers wanting to sell Viagra to epidemiologists wanting to study the spread of HIV.

Artificial Brain that can Educate Itself Created by Russian Scientists Image Credit: Shutterstock Artificial Brain that can Educate Itself Created by Russian Scientists Russian scientists are one step closer to crafting full artificial intelligence. A physical model of a brain has been designed, with the ability to educate itself. Tomsk State University in western Siberia housed an international team of scientists who “built mathematical and computer models of the human brain,” said the head of the laboratory, Professor FIT Vladimir Syryamkin. “After that it was designed radio-electronic device comprising perceptrons. How to Burst the "Filter Bubble" that Protects Us from Opposing Views The term “filter bubble” entered the public domain back in 2011when the internet activist Eli Pariser coined it to refer to the way recommendation engines shield people from certain aspects of the real world. Pariser used the example of two people who googled the term “BP”. One received links to investment news about BP while the other received links to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, presumably as a result of some recommendation algorithm. This is an insidious problem. Much social research shows that people prefer to receive information that they agree with instead of information that challenges their beliefs. This problem is compounded when social networks recommend content based on what users already like and on what people similar to them also like.

The Global Brain Institute The GBI uses scientific methods to better understand the global evolution towards ever-stronger connectivity between people, software and machines. By developing concrete models of this development, we can anticipate both its promises and its perils. That would help us to steer a course towards the best possible outcome for humanity.

5 essential rules of self promotion Self-promotion is one of the trickiest and most elusive skills a designer must acquire. Like learning to ride a bicycle, you have to do it to find out how it's done. Nor is it something that can be avoided.