Bounded rationality is the idea that in decision-making, rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision. It was proposed by Herbert A. Simon as an alternative basis for the mathematical modeling of decision making, as used in economics, political science and related disciplines; it complements rationality as optimization, which views decision-making as a fully rational process of finding an optimal choice given the information available. Another way to look at bounded rationality is that, because decision-makers lack the ability and resources to arrive at the optimal solution, they instead apply their rationality only after having greatly simplified the choices available. Some models of human behavior in the social sciences assume that humans can be reasonably approximated or described as "rational" entities (see for example rational choice theory). Origins
Decision makingSample flowchart representing the decision process to add a new article to Wikipedia. Decision-making can be regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice that may or may not prompt action. Overview Edit human performance with regard to decisions has been the subject of active research from several perspectives: Psychological: examining individual decisions in the context of a set of needs, preferences and values the individual has or seeks.Cognitive: the decision-making process regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment.Normative: the analysis of individual decisions concerned with the logic of decision-making and rationality and the invariant choice it leads to. Decision-making can also be regarded as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory. Problem analysis
Recognition primed decisionRecognition-primed decision (RPD) is a model of how people make quick, effective decisions when faced with complex situations. In this model, the decision maker is assumed to generate a possible course of action, compare it to the constraints imposed by the situation, and select the first course of action that is not rejected. RPD has been described in diverse groups including Whitewater kayaking Trauma nurses, fireground commanders, chess players, commercial Whitewater river guides and stock market traders. Overview The RPD model identifies a reasonable reaction as the first one that is immediately considered. RPD reveals a critical difference between experts and novices when presented with recurring situations. Variations There are three variations in RPD strategy. Variation 2 occurs when the decision maker diagnoses an unknown situation to choose from a known selection of courses of action. Application See also References Gary A.
Overcoming Serious IndecisivenessOpportunity or Problem Recognition: A person discovers that a new opportunity exists or a problem needs resolution. Thirty-five years ago an entrepreneurial leader, Robert Cowan, recognized a new opportunity and asked, "Why do business meetings have to be conducted in person? Why can't they connect through television images?" Immersion: The individual concentrates on the problem and becomes immersed in it. Incubation: The person keeps the assembled information in mind for: a while. Insight: The problem-conquering solution flashes into the person's mind at an unexpected time, such as on the verge of sleep, during a shower, or while running. Verification and Application: The individual sets out to prove that the creative solution has merit. Overcoming traditional sequential thinking is so important to creative thinking that the process has been characterized in several different ways. A basic principle of learning is that practice is necessary to develop and improve skills.
SELF-ACTUALIZATION - BRAINMETA.COM - NEUROSCIENCE, CONSCIOUSNESS, BRAIN, MIND, MIND-BRAIN, NEUROINFORMATICS, NEURAL NETWORKS, BRAIN ATLASESRelated: Psychedelics and Self-Actualization / Consciousness Expansion / Philosophy / Research Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People Maslow, on the basis of a study of persons (living and dead) selected as being self-actualizing persons on the basis of a general definition, described the self-actualizing person as follows, as compared to ordinary or average people (Maslow, 1956): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Processes of Self-Actualizing People According to Maslow, there are two processes necessary for self-actualization: self exploration and action. Episodic Nature of Self-Actualization Later in life, realizing the episodic nature of self-realization, Maslow redefined Self-Actualization in terms of frequency of peak experiences. "In other words, any person in any of the peak experiences takes on temporarily many of the characteristics which I found in self-actualizing individuals. Such states or episodes can, in theory, come at any time in life to any person.
Leaders Emerge by Talking First and Most Often « PsyBlogThere is a big gap between the actual competence of leaders and the way in which they are perceived by others. Put some random people in a group, give them a task and soon enough a leader will emerge. What is it about that person that makes others grant them the honour of being in charge? New insight comes from a study published in Personality and Social Psychology, which suggests that leaders emerge through a combination of their own outspoken behaviour, and how this outspoken behaviour is perceived by others. In two studies Anderson and Kilduff (2009) from the University of California, Berkeley, looked at how dominant individuals in a group were perceived by others in the group. In the second of two studies Anderson and Kilduff had participants attempting a series of maths problems in competition with another group. This study suggests leaders emerge through more subtle processes than the word ‘dominance’ might imply. » See also: 7 Reasons Leaders Fail. [Image credit: Nod Young]
How to Follow Your IntuitionUser Reviewed Community Q&A Intuition is "knowing" something without being able to explain how you came to that conclusion rationally. It's that mysterious "gut feeling" or "instinct" that often turns out to be right, in retrospect. When you've whittled down your options and are stuck at a crossroads, getting in touch with your intuition can help. Learning how to separate the wheat from the chaff, so to speak, is difficult but intuition can be developed, especially when following some of these ideas. Steps <img alt="Image titled Follow Your Intuition Step 1" src=" width="728" height="546" class="whcdn" onload="WH.performance.clearMarks('image1_rendered'); WH.performance.mark('image1_rendered');">1Trust your instincts. Community Q&A Add New Question How can I use my intuition correctly in everyday life? Ask a Question Answer Questions Make a stranger's day. Tips
Mozart effectThe Mozart effect can refer to: A set of research results indicating that listening to Mozart's music may induce a short-term improvement on the performance of certain kinds of mental tasks known as "spatial-temporal reasoning;"Popularized versions of the hypothesis, which suggest that "listening to Mozart makes you smarter", or that early childhood exposure to classical music has a beneficial effect on mental development;A US trademark for a set of commercial recordings and related materials, which are claimed to harness the effect for a variety of purposes. The trademark owner, Don Campbell, Inc., claims benefits far beyond improving spatio-temporal reasoning or raising intelligence, defining the mark as "an inclusive term signifying the transformational powers of music in health, education, and well-being." Alfred A. Tomatis The concept of the "Mozart effect" was described by French researcher Dr. Rauscher et al. 1993 study Popularization Political impact
Person-centered therapyPerson-centered therapy (PCT) is also known as person-centered psychotherapy, person-centered counseling, client-centered therapy and Rogerian psychotherapy. PCT is a form of talk-psychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s. The goal of PCT is to provide clients with an opportunity to develop a sense of self wherein they can realize how their attitudes, feelings and behavior are being negatively affected. Although this technique has been criticized by behaviorists for lacking structure and by psychoanalysts for actually providing a conditional relationship it has proven to be an effective and popular treatment. History and influences Rogers affirmed individual personal experience as the basis and standard for living and therapeutic effect. Core Conditions Rogers (1957; 1959) stated that there are six necessary and sufficient conditions required for therapeutic change: Processes See also References Notes