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List of cognitive biases

Systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm and/or rationality in judgment. They are often studied in psychology, sociology and behavioral economics.[1] Although the reality of most of these biases is confirmed by reproducible research,[2][3] there are often controversies about how to classify these biases or how to explain them.[4] Several theoretical causes are known for some cognitive biases, which provides a classification of biases by their common generative mechanism (such as noisy information-processing[5]). Gerd Gigerenzer has criticized the framing of cognitive biases as errors in judgment, and favors interpreting them as arising from rational deviations from logical thought.[6] Explanations include information-processing rules (i.e., mental shortcuts), called heuristics, that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. Belief, decision-making and behavioral[edit] Social[edit] [edit]

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21 Books The Ruling Elite Doesn't Want You to Read - Activist Post By Rick Gedeon The sole purpose of COINTELPRO was to destroy individuals and groups perceived as threats to the status quo in the United States. COINTELPRO was “officially” ended in 1971—although it never really ended. After the 911 attacks, the government went at it again, but this time with a scared and more dumbed-down complicit public. Exactly forty-six days after the towers came crumbing down Bush signed the USA Patriot Act. Outline of thought Nature of thought[edit] Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following: An activity taking place in a: brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals (only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain). It is the physical structure associated with the mind. mind – abstract entity with the cognitive faculties of consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory. Having a mind is a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms.[1][2] Activities taking place in a mind are called mental processes or cognitive (see automated reasoning, below) – general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

Cognitive bias Some cognitive biases are presumably adaptive. Cognitive biases may lead to more effective actions in a given context.[6] Furthermore, allowing cognitive biases enable faster decisions which can be desirable when timeliness is more valuable than accuracy, as illustrated in heuristics.[7] Other cognitive biases are a "by-product" of human processing limitations,[8] resulting from a lack of appropriate mental mechanisms (bounded rationality), or simply from a limited capacity for information processing.[9][10] A continually evolving list of cognitive biases has been identified over the last six decades of research on human judgment and decision-making in cognitive science, social psychology, and behavioral economics. Kahneman and Tversky (1996) argue that cognitive biases have efficient practical implications for areas including clinical judgment, entrepreneurship, finance, and management.[11][12] Overview[edit]

Cognitive bias mitigation Cognitive bias mitigation is the prevention and reduction of the negative effects of cognitive biases – unconscious, automatic influences on human judgment and decision making that reliably produce reasoning errors. There is no coherent, comprehensive theory or practice of cognitive bias mitigation. This article describes tools, methods, proposals and other initiatives, in academic and professional disciplines concerned with the efficacy of human reasoning, associated with the concept of cognitive bias mitigation; most address mitigation tacitly rather than explicitly. A long-standing debate regarding human decision making bears on the development of a theory and practice of bias mitigation.

Writing 250 – Writing & Rhetoric Advanced Composition When reading/listening to others’ arguments as well as planning your own, you must determine if the evidence is credible, accurate, and reliable. If the evidence does not meet these criteria, then your argument is (more) likely to fail. To evaluate evidence for credibility, accuracy, and reliability, consider the following questions: Who/what is the source of the evidence? It is important to determine the credentials of the person/group responsible for the evidence, and, depending on where the evidence is found, it may be (fairly) easy to do so.

The Edge of the World - Fantasy Magazine The day that Donna and Piggy and Russ went to see the Edge of the World was a hot one. They were sitting on the curb by the gas station that noontime, sharing a Coke and watching the big Starlifters lumber up into the air, one by one, out of Toldenarba AFB. The sky rumbled with their passing. There’d been an incident in the Persian Gulf, and half the American forces in the Twilight Emirates were on alert.

Language and thought A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought. Many point out the seemingly common-sense realization that upon introspection we seem to think in the language we speak. A number of writers and theorists have extrapolated upon this idea. What Is a Cognitive Bias? When we are making judgments and decisions about the world around us, we like to think that we are objective, logical, and capable of taking in and evaluating all the information that is available to us. The reality is, however, that our judgments and decisions are often riddled with errors and influenced by a wide variety of biases. The human brain is both remarkable and powerful, but certainly subject to limitations. One type of fundamental limitation on human thinking is known as a cognitive bias. A cognitive bias is a type of error in thinking that occurs when people are processing and interpreting information in the world around them. Cognitive biases are often a result of our attempt to simplify information processing.

Cognitive bias modification - Wikipedia According to Yiend et al. 2013 in an article in the journal Cognitive Therapy Research, "CBM treatments are a more convenient and flexible than other modes of treatment because they do not require meetings with a therapist. They offer the potential for delivery using modern technologies (e.g. internet or mobile phone) and require minimal supervision. They could therefore become highly cost effective and widely accessible. CBM methods are also less demanding and more acceptable to patients than traditional therapies. This is because personal thoughts and beliefs are not directly interrogated, and there is no need for social interaction or stigmatizing visits to outpatient clinics. Seven thought experiments to make you question everything Thought experiments are among the most important tools in the intellectual toolbox. Widely used in many disciplines, thought experiments allow for complex situations to be explored, questions to be raised, and complex ideas to be placed in an understandable context. Here we have seven thought experiments in philosophy you might not have heard of.

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