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List of cognitive biases

Illustration by John Manoogian III (jm3).[1] Cognitive biases can be organized into four categories: biases that arise from too much information, not enough meaning, the need to act quickly, and the limits of memory. Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person. However, this kind of confirmation bias has also been argued to be an example of social skill: a way to establish a connection with the other person.[8] Decision-making, belief, and behavioral biases[edit] Social biases[edit] Memory errors and biases[edit] Notes[edit]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases

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The Book Surgeon (15 pieces) Using knives, tweezers and surgical tools, Brian Dettmer carves one page at a time. Nothing inside the out-of-date encyclopedias, medical journals, illustration books, or dictionaries is relocated or implanted, only removed. Dettmer manipulates the pages and spines to form the shape of his sculptures. Attribution: How We Explain Behavior In social psychology, attribution is the process of inferring the causes of events or behaviors. In real life, attribution is something we all do every day, usually without any awareness of the underlying processes and biases that lead to our inferences. For example, over the course of a typical day you probably make numerous attributions about your own behavior as well as that of the people around you. When you get a poor grade on a quiz, you might blame the teacher for not adequately explaining the material, completely dismissing the fact that you didn't study.

Introducing smartcrop.js / 29a.ch Image cropping is a common task in many web applications. Usually just cutting out the center of the image works out ok. It's often a compromise and sometimes it fails miserably. Evelyn by AehoHikaruki Can we do better than that? Outline of thought Nature of thought[edit] Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following: An activity taking place in a: brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals (only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain). It is the physical structure associated with the mind. mind – abstract entity with the cognitive faculties of consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory. Having a mind is a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms.[1][2] Activities taking place in a mind are called mental processes or cognitive functions.computer (see automated reasoning, below) – general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

Kintsugi Tea bowl repaired with the Kintsugi method Kintsugi (金継ぎ?) (Japanese: golden joinery) or Kintsukuroi (金繕い?) 3D Paintings on Panes of Glass Using multiple layers of clear glass, Canada based David Spriggs and Chinese born Xia Xiaowan, transform flat artwork into 3D sculptures. Viewers are treated to different shifting perspectives of the works based on where they stand in the art space. Spriggs work revolves around powerful explosive imagery, often resembling storms, cosmic blasts or firework like explosions. Group attribution error The group attribution error is an attribution bias analogous to the fundamental attribution error in that it refers to people's tendency to believe either (1) that the characteristics of an individual group member are reflective of the group as a whole, or (2) that a group's decision outcome must reflect the preferences of individual group members, even when information is available suggesting otherwise. The fundamental attribution error is similar in that it refers to the tendency to believe that an individual's actions are representative of the individual's preferences, even when available information suggests that the actions were caused by outside forces. Type I[edit] To demonstrate the first form of group attribution error, research participants are typically given case studies about individuals who are members of defined groups (such as members of a particular occupation, nationality, or ethnicity), and then take surveys to determine their views of the groups as a whole.

PSR-2 — Coding Style Guide This guide extends and expands on PSR-1, the basic coding standard. The intent of this guide is to reduce cognitive friction when scanning code from different authors. It does so by enumerating a shared set of rules and expectations about how to format PHP code. The style rules herein are derived from commonalities among the various member projects. Language and thought A variety of different authors, theories and fields purport influences between language and thought. Many point out the seemingly common-sense realization that upon introspection we seem to think in the language we speak. A number of writers and theorists have extrapolated upon this idea.

Cronyism Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications. Hence, cronyism is contrary in practice and principle to meritocracy. Cronyism exists when the appointer and the beneficiary are in social contact. Often, the appointer is inadequate to hold his or her own job or position of authority, and for this reason the appointer appoints individuals who will not try to weaken him or her, or express views contrary to those of the appointer. Politically, "cronyism" is derogatorily used.[1] Etymology[edit]

Should be corrected in Wikipedia. by solushed Mar 28

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