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U.S. Copyright Office

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Forms Alternate Registration Method Registration with Paper Forms The fee for a basic registration using one of these forms is $65 payable by check or money order. Form CON (continuation sheet for applications) is also still available in paper. Online Services (eCO: Electronic Copyright Office) Security For site security and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, deny service, otherwise cause damage or access non-public information. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the United States criminal code (18 U.S.C. 1030). Information regarding possible violations of law may be provided to law enforcement officials.

Copyright law of the United States The Copyright Law of the United States intends to encourage the creation of art and culture by rewarding authors and artists with a set of exclusive rights. Federal Copyright law grants authors and artists the exclusive right to make and sell copies of their works, the right to create derivative works, and the right to perform or display their works publicly. These exclusive rights are subject to a time limit, and generally expire 70 years after the author's death. US Copyright law is governed by the federal Copyright Act of 1976. The constitution explicitly grants Congress the power to create copyright law. Specifically, Congress has the power: International Copyright International Copyright There is no such thing as an “international copyright” that will automatically protect an author’s writings throughout the world. Protection against unauthorized use in a particular country depends on the national laws of that country. However, most countries offer protection to foreign works under certain conditions that have been greatly simplified by international copyright treaties and conventions.

International copyright agreements While no creative work is automatically protected worldwide, there are international treaties which provide protection automatically for all creative works as soon as they are fixed in a medium. There are two primary international copyright agreements, the Buenos Aires Convention and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Berne Convention[edit] The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (also referred to as just the Berne Convention) requires protection for all creative works in a fixed medium be automatic, and last for at least 50 years after the author's death for any work except for photographic and cinematographic works. Photographic works are tied to a minimum of 25 years. Cinematographic works are protected for 50 years after first showing, or 50 years after creation if it hasn't been shown within 50 years after the creation.

Patent Laws Around the World This webpage provides links to patent offices around the world and tutorials on patent laws in different countries and regions. We invite you to provide us with more news and views about the laws in your country or region (e-mail or make a posting in our Forum). Many countries accept national phase patent applications based on "world patent applications" (WO publications) made under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) maintains a database of WO published international patent applications (also known as PCT applications).

What is a 'protected commons'? A protected commons provides a secure platform where discussion concerning an invention or improvement can take place without the invalidation of future patent applications, or the misappropriation of information by third parties. How does a ‘protected commons’ differ from the public domain? Information that is publicly disclosed outside the context of a patent application has entered the public domain. Information that has been deposited in the public domain may be readily misappropriated, because those with resources can most rapidly analyse and define utilities for it, and then cover these utilities and any improvements on them with patent applications to prevent others from using them. Thus, open access to information "in the public domain" does not guarantee open capability to use it.

Legal - Trademarks Trademarks - as of May 3, 2013 Trademark and Service Mark List Registered Trademarks The following are registered trademarks of Novell, Inc., in the United States and other countries. Bandit Banshee Beagle BorderManager ConsoleOne DeveloperNet DigitalMe DigitalMe Handprint Logo DirXML GroupWise Immunix Kablink LAN WorkPlace LogicSource ManageWise Mono N Logo NDPS NDS NEST NetWare Novell Novell iFolder Novell Logo (Novell Stylized) Novell SecretStore Novell Vibe PartnerNet XAD Ximian Yes Tested & Approved (Logo) ZENworks ZON Sample DMCA Take Down Letter It just came to my attention earlier today that someone had copied an entire article from and posted it to their own website last week. How is it possible that anyone doesn’t realize that you just cannot do that? More likely, it is known that you cannot do that but people do it figuring they won’t get caught. One of the most frequent questions I would get from my former law students was “how do you ever learn that someone is infringing”" or “how would you ever know what someone it thinking?”

Related:  Copyright Basics