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What is a 'protected commons'? A protected commons provides a secure platform where discussion concerning an invention or improvement can take place without the invalidation of future patent applications, or the misappropriation of information by third parties. How does a ‘protected commons’ differ from the public domain? Information that is publicly disclosed outside the context of a patent application has entered the public domain. Information that has been deposited in the public domain may be readily misappropriated, because those with resources can most rapidly analyse and define utilities for it, and then cover these utilities and any improvements on them with patent applications to prevent others from using them. Thus, open access to information "in the public domain" does not guarantee open capability to use it. How does a ‘protected commons’ differ from patenting?

espacenet - Latipat ABC-Chemistry : Directory of Free Journals in Chemistry Patent Laws Around the World This webpage provides links to patent offices around the world and tutorials on patent laws in different countries and regions. We invite you to provide us with more news and views about the laws in your country or region (e-mail webmaster@bios.net or make a posting in our Forum). Many countries accept national phase patent applications based on "world patent applications" (WO publications) made under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) maintains a database of WO published international patent applications (also known as PCT applications). Patents are specific to particular jurisdictions. In a country in which a patent hasn't been granted or has expired or lapsed, the claimed invention described in the patent application is free to use (in the public domain). However, there are many traps to be avoided. The information contained in "Patent Laws Around the World" was believed to be correct at the time it was collated.

BLAST Search Biological Toolkit Species and keyword Search Search for patent documents that declare at least one sequence in their sequence listings section as derived from a specific species combined with a keyword full text search within the corpus of more than 320,000 biological patents. PatSeq Finder Compare and analyze your sequence of interest with our Patent Sequence (PatSeq) database that consists of about 150 million sequence listing entries extracted from granted or published patent documents across 15 jurisdictions. PatSeq Explorer Navigate sequence listing entries from granted and published patent documents as mapped with various similarity and coverage thresholds onto a specific genome and in this case, the human genome. Google Scholar International copyright agreements While no creative work is automatically protected worldwide, there are international treaties which provide protection automatically for all creative works as soon as they are fixed in a medium. There are two primary international copyright agreements, the Buenos Aires Convention and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Berne Convention[edit] The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (also referred to as just the Berne Convention) requires protection for all creative works in a fixed medium be automatic, and last for at least 50 years after the author's death for any work except for photographic and cinematographic works. Photographic works are tied to a minimum of 25 years. Cinematographic works are protected for 50 years after first showing, or 50 years after creation if it hasn't been shown within 50 years after the creation. Buenos Aires Convention[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

espacenet - Home page International Copyright International Copyright There is no such thing as an “international copyright” that will automatically protect an author’s writings throughout the world. Protection against unauthorized use in a particular country depends on the national laws of that country. However, most countries offer protection to foreign works under certain conditions that have been greatly simplified by international copyright treaties and conventions. The United States became a member of the Berne Convention on March 1, 1989. Even if a work cannot be brought under an international convention, protection may be available in other countries by virtue of a bilateral agreement between the United States and other countries or under specific provision of a country’s national laws. An author who desires copyright protection for his or her work in a particular country should first determine the extent of protection available to works of foreign authors in that country. FL-100, Reviewed November 2009

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