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What is a 'protected commons'? A protected commons provides a secure platform where discussion concerning an invention or improvement can take place without the invalidation of future patent applications, or the misappropriation of information by third parties. How does a ‘protected commons’ differ from the public domain? Information that is publicly disclosed outside the context of a patent application has entered the public domain. Information that has been deposited in the public domain may be readily misappropriated, because those with resources can most rapidly analyse and define utilities for it, and then cover these utilities and any improvements on them with patent applications to prevent others from using them. Thus, open access to information "in the public domain" does not guarantee open capability to use it. How does a ‘protected commons’ differ from patenting?

Espacenet Did you know that... .... Espacenet automatically hides duplicate patent documents in your result list? This is because it displays only one patent document per family, so the total number of results you get initially may well decrease as you click through the list. Job vacancies The EPO is looking for engineers and scientists to join an international team working at the forefront of technology. Online products – need some answers? Use the discussion forum and get all the latest news and views about our online products. Espacenet: Intro Click here to watch GPI - Global Patent Index You've used Espacenet. Cooperative Patent Classification: Intro Click here to watch

Patent Laws Around the World This webpage provides links to patent offices around the world and tutorials on patent laws in different countries and regions. We invite you to provide us with more news and views about the laws in your country or region (e-mail or make a posting in our Forum). Many countries accept national phase patent applications based on "world patent applications" (WO publications) made under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) maintains a database of WO published international patent applications (also known as PCT applications). Patents are specific to particular jurisdictions. In a country in which a patent hasn't been granted or has expired or lapsed, the claimed invention described in the patent application is free to use (in the public domain). However, there are many traps to be avoided. The information contained in "Patent Laws Around the World" was believed to be correct at the time it was collated.

International copyright agreements While no creative work is automatically protected worldwide, there are international treaties which provide protection automatically for all creative works as soon as they are fixed in a medium. There are two primary international copyright agreements, the Buenos Aires Convention and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Berne Convention[edit] The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (also referred to as just the Berne Convention) requires protection for all creative works in a fixed medium be automatic, and last for at least 50 years after the author's death for any work except for photographic and cinematographic works. Photographic works are tied to a minimum of 25 years. Cinematographic works are protected for 50 years after first showing, or 50 years after creation if it hasn't been shown within 50 years after the creation. Buenos Aires Convention[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

International Copyright International Copyright There is no such thing as an “international copyright” that will automatically protect an author’s writings throughout the world. Protection against unauthorized use in a particular country depends on the national laws of that country. However, most countries offer protection to foreign works under certain conditions that have been greatly simplified by international copyright treaties and conventions. The United States became a member of the Berne Convention on March 1, 1989. Even if a work cannot be brought under an international convention, protection may be available in other countries by virtue of a bilateral agreement between the United States and other countries or under specific provision of a country’s national laws. An author who desires copyright protection for his or her work in a particular country should first determine the extent of protection available to works of foreign authors in that country. FL-100, Reviewed November 2009

Copyright law of the United States The Copyright Law of the United States intends to encourage the creation of art and culture by rewarding authors and artists with a set of exclusive rights. Federal Copyright law grants authors and artists the exclusive right to make and sell copies of their works, the right to create derivative works, and the right to perform or display their works publicly. These exclusive rights are subject to a time limit, and generally expire 70 years after the author's death. US Copyright law is governed by the federal Copyright Act of 1976. The constitution explicitly grants Congress the power to create copyright law. Specifically, Congress has the power: To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries. The United States Copyright Office handles copyright registration, recording of copyright transfers, and other administrative aspects of copyright law. History[edit]

Online Services (eCO: Electronic Copyright Office) Security For site security and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, deny service, otherwise cause damage or access non-public information. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the United States criminal code (18 U.S.C. 1030). Information regarding possible violations of law may be provided to law enforcement officials. Privacy: Copyright Public Records Personally identifying information, such as your address, telephone number, and email address, that is submitted on the registration application becomes part of the public record.

Forms Alternate Registration Method Registration with Paper Forms The fee for a basic registration using one of these forms is $65 payable by check or money order. Form CON (continuation sheet for applications) is also still available in paper. Literary Form TX Visual Arts Form VA Performing Arts Form PA Sound Recordings Form SR Single Serials Form SE Continuation Sheet Form CON — Continuation Sheet used in conjunction with forms above when more space is necessary. Types of Applications that Must Be Completed on Paper Certain applications must be completed on paper and mailed to the Copyright Office with the appropriate fee and deposit. Copyright Office application forms are available in PDF format and should be viewed with the latest, free Adobe Acrobat Reader program. Forms submitted to the Copyright Office must be clear, legible, and on good quality 8.5-inch by 11-inch white paper. Important Printing Instructions Print forms head to head (top of page 2 is directly behind the top of page 1).

Legal - Trademarks Trademarks - as of May 3, 2013 Trademark and Service Mark List Registered Trademarks The following are registered trademarks of Novell, Inc., in the United States and other countries. Bandit Banshee Beagle BorderManager ConsoleOne DeveloperNet DigitalMe DigitalMe Handprint Logo DirXML GroupWise Immunix Kablink LAN WorkPlace LogicSource ManageWise Mono N Logo NDPS NDS NEST NetWare Novell Novell iFolder Novell Logo (Novell Stylized) Novell SecretStore Novell Vibe PartnerNet XAD Ximian Yes Tested & Approved (Logo) ZENworks ZON Registered Service Marks The following are registered service marks of Novell, Inc., in the United States and other countries BrainShare Certified Directory Engineer CNE Global Service Partner Logo Novell Consulting Trademarks of Novell, Inc. The following are trademarks of Novell, Inc. Service Marks of Novell, Inc. The following are service marks of Novell, Inc. Novell Trademark Guidelines Logos and Trade Dress Why Protect Trademarks? Back to the Top Trademark Guidelines