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Theme 4: Utilitarianism – a non-religious approach to ethics

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Philip Schofield on Jeremy Benthams Utilitarianism. w14 religious studies ms. Utilitarianism - Philosophical Investigations. 01 Utilitarianism an introduction. 01 Utilitarianism. Act Utilitarianism Strengths Weaknesses. Rule Utilitarianism strengths and weaknesses. Animal Theology. Animal Rights and Christian Theology Study Guide. Utilitarianism - Animal Ethics. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that defends that we should act in ways that bring about as much happiness as possible in the world.

Utilitarianism - Animal Ethics

This theory defends the following three things: (1) What is good for individuals is that the amount of happiness (or satisfaction of desires) is as high as possible. (2) What is best overall is that the total sum of happiness be as high as possible. (3) We should act in ways that increase the total sum of happiness. One particular form of utilitarianism focuses not on the total sum of positive wellbeing and suffering, but on minimizing the total sum of suffering. According to utilitarianism, the wellbeing of every individual counts. For utilitarianism, the use of nonhuman animals can be acceptable only if the happiness their exploitation causes is greater than the harm it causes. In addition, utilitarianism cannot just accept that we should do nothing about the harms suffered by others even when we aren’t the ones who have caused these harms.

References. The ethics of research involving animals full report. NUCLEAR DETERRENCE. Nuclear Abolition or Deterrence: A Nuclear Ethics Debate. One of the most important political cleavages in contemporary international society is marked by the lack of consensus on the continued reliance of nuclear weapons by some states for their security.

Nuclear Abolition or Deterrence: A Nuclear Ethics Debate

On one side of this debate, it is argued that nuclear deterrence remains an important instrument of international security given (1) the stubborn nuclear security dilemmas in East Asia over North Korea and in the Middle East over Iran and (2) the increasing tensions between the United States and Russia over a number of controversial security issues. Even U.S. President Barack Obama holds this view. Additionally, Washington has begun a significant nuclear weapons modernization effort despite Obama’s 2009 Prague commitment to move towards a nuclear-weapon-free world.

Other nuclear-armed states too, have followed suit. Moral cosmopolitanism is committed to the idea that all human beings are equally subjects of moral regard. References Anon., 2015. Anon., 2016. Arms Control Association, 2016. Philosophyade: UTILITARIANISM AND NUCLEAR DETERRENCE. In 1945, when deciding whether to use "the most terrible weapon ever known" the US President appointed an Interim Committee made up of distinguished and responsible people in the government.

Philosophyade: UTILITARIANISM AND NUCLEAR DETERRENCE

Most but not all of its military advisors favoured using it. Top-level scientists said they could find no acceptable alternative to using it, but they were opposed by equally able scientists. After lengthy discussions, the committee decided that the lives saved by ending the war swiftly by using this weapon outweighed the lives destroyed by using it and thought that the best course of action. The use of nuclear weapons would cause vast physical destruction. Alongside blast and heat, intense and harmful ionizing radiation is created within the zone of the direct effects of nuclear detonations. Intuitively, this strongly suggests that any moral justification for using these weapons would have to be grounded on some greater good that they might serve.

Deontology, however, is not without difficulties. Pope Francis calls for elimination of all nuclear weapons. ROME - Pope Francis has called for a “collective and concerted” multilateral effort to eliminate nuclear weapons, telling a United Nations conference working on a treaty to prohibit such weapons that international peace and stability “cannot be based on a false sense of security, on the threat of mutual destruction or total annihilation, or on simply maintaining a balance of power.”

Pope Francis calls for elimination of all nuclear weapons

The conference took place March 27 in New York, after the UN General Assembly voted in December to negotiate a legally binding treaty to prohibit nuclear weapons, with the aim of working toward their total elimination. Such a treaty would make explicit what is implied in the 1970 Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, which calls on declared nuclear powers to aim for complete nuclear disarmament. Lecture 1: The Moral Side Of Murder – Harvard Justice. A brief overview of the reading: One familiar way to think about the right thing to do is to ask what will produce the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people.

Lecture 1: The Moral Side Of Murder – Harvard Justice

This way of thinking about morality finds its clearest expression in the philosophy of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). In his Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1780), Bentham argues that the principle of utility should be the basis of morality and law, and by utility he understands whatever promotes pleasure and prevents pain. Lecture 2: The Case for Cannibalism – Harvard Justice. PHILOSOPHY - Ethics: Utilitarianism, Part 1. PHILOSOPHY - Ethics: Utilitarianism, Part 2. PHILOSOPHY - Ethics: Utilitarianism, Part 3. Utilitarianism: Crash Course Philosophy #36. BBC News Channel - HARDtalk, Peter Singer, philosopher.