New religious movement. Ernst Troeltsch's church-sect typology, upon which the modern concept of cults, sects, and new religious movements is based.
A new religious movement (NRM) is a religious community or spiritual group of modern origins, which has a peripheral place within its nation's dominant religious culture. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may be part of a wider religion, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Scholars studying the sociology of religion have almost unanimously adopted this term as a neutral alternative to the word cult, which is often considered derogatory. Scholars continue to try to reach definitions and define boundaries. A NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society.
Paganism. Japanese new religions. Japanese new religions are new religious movements established in Japan.
In Japanese they are called shinshūkyō (新宗教?) Or shinkō shūkyō (新興宗教?). Japanese scholars classify all religious organizations founded since the middle of the 19th century as "new religions"; thus, the term refers to a great diversity and number of organizations. Most came into being in the mid-to-late twentieth century and are influenced by much older traditional religions including Shinto, Buddhism, and Hinduism. Cao Đài. Raëlism. Raëlism , or the Raëlian Movement , is a UFO religion that was founded in 1974 by Claude Vorilhon , now known as Raël .
Hindu reform movements. Several contemporary groups, collectively termed Hindu reform movements or Hindu revivalism, strive to introduce regeneration and reform to Hinduism, both in a religious or spiritual and in a societal sense.
The religious aspect mostly emphasizes Vedanta tradition and mystical interpretations of Hinduism ("Neo-Vedanta"), and the societal aspect was an important element in the Indian independence movement, aiming at a "Hindu" character of the society of the eventual Republic of India. History From the 18th century onward India was being colonialised by the British. In contrast to the Muslim domination,[dubious ] this colonialisation had a huge impact on Indian society, where social and religious leaders tried to assimilate western culture and modernise Hindu culture. Unitarian Universalism. Unitarian Universalism is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning". Unitarian Universalists do not share a creed but are unified by their shared search for spiritual growth.
The roots of Unitarian Universalism (UU) are in liberal Christianity, specifically Unitarianism and Universalism. Unitarian Universalists state that from these traditions comes a deep regard for intellectual freedom and inclusive love, so that congregations and members seek inspiration and derive insight from all major world religions. Noahidism. The rainbow is a modern symbol of Noahidism.
Noahidism ((/ˈnoʊə.haɪd.ɪsm/); alternatively Noachidism (/ˈnoʊə.xaɪd.ɪsm/)) is a monotheistic ideology based on the Seven Laws of Noah, and on their traditional interpretations within Rabbinic Judaism. According to Jewish law, non-Jews are not obligated to convert to Judaism, but they are required to observe the Seven Laws of Noah. If they accept and fulfill these commandments with the conviction that Yahweh commanded them in the Torah as transmitted by Moses, and are careful to observe them in accordance with the relevant details within the Torah law, they are assured of a place in the World to Come (Olam Haba), the final reward of the righteous. The Divinely ordained penalty for violating any of these Noahide Laws is discussed in the Talmud, but in practical terms that is subject to the working legal system that is established by the society at large.
Noahic covenant Maimonides Scientology. Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by science fiction writer L.
Ron Hubbard (1911–1986), beginning in 1952 as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. Hubbard characterized Scientology as a religion, and in 1953 incorporated the Church of Scientology in Camden, New Jersey. A large number of organizations overseeing the application of Scientology have been established, the most notable of these being the Church of Scientology. Scientology sponsors a variety of social-service programs. These include the Narconon anti-drug program, the Criminon prison rehabilitation program, the Study Tech education methodology, the Volunteer Ministers, the World Institute of Scientology Enterprises, and a set of moral guidelines expressed in a booklet called The Way to Happiness. Scientology is one of the most controversial new religious movements to have arisen in the 20th century.
Etymology and earlier usage History Dianetics L. Eckankar. The Eckankar "EK" symbol Temple of ECK, Chanhassen, Minnesota Eckankar is a religious movement first organized by Paul Twitchell in 1965.
The personal experience of the "Light and Sound of God" is one of the aims of the many spiritual exercises that are delineated in the numerous books available to the general public as well as in the discourses accessible to members only. Eckankar followers believe it provides an individual spiritual path to an understanding of self as eternal Soul and the development of higher states of consciousness. Followers of Eckankar commonly refer to themselves as "Eckists". Wicca. This pentacle, worn as a pendant, depicts a pentagram, or five-pointed star, used as a symbol of Wicca by many adherents.
Wicca is a diverse religion with no central authority or figure defining it. It is divided into various lineages and denominations, referred to as traditions, each with its own organisational structure and level of centralisation. Due to its decentralized nature, there is some disagreement over what actually constitutes Wicca. Some traditions, collectively referred to as British Traditional Wicca, strictly follow the initiatory lineage of Gardner and consider the term Wicca to apply only to such lineaged traditions, while other eclectic traditions do not. Neo-Druidism. Neo-Druidism or Neo-Druidry, commonly referred to as Druidry by many adherents, is a form of modern spirituality or religion that generally promotes harmony and worship of nature, and respect for all beings, including the environment.
Many forms of modern Druidry are Neopagan religions, whereas some are instead seen as philosophies that are not necessarily religious in nature. Originating in Britain during the 18th century, Druidry was originally a cultural movement, only gaining religious or spiritual connotations in the 19th century. The core principle of Druidry is respect and veneration of nature, and as such it often involves participation in the environmental movement. Another prominent belief amongst modern Druids is the veneration of ancestors, particularly those who belonged to prehistoric societies. Beliefs A Druid symbol Nature-centered spirituality Druidry largely revolves around the veneration of nature. Theology Monotheism Satanism. The downward-pointing pentagram is often used to represent Satanism.
Satanism is a broad term referring to a group of social movements comprising diverse ideological and philosophical beliefs. Their shared features include symbolic association with, or admiration for the character of Satan, and Prometheus, which are in their view, liberating figures. It was estimated that there were 50,000 Satanists in 1990. There may be as many as one hundred thousand in the world.[dead link]