Chapter 1: Introduction An understanding of functional neuroanatomy is critical to understanding the symptoms of nervous system damage. Most disorders of the nervous system either target particular brain structures or target components of functional systems. Therefore, knowing these structures and their basic functions permits localization of the nervous system damage. This chapter will consider the important elements of clinical neuroanatomy. There are several good texts that provide greater detail on these systems (1-3). An atlas of brain structures is essential to the study of neuroanatomy. Brain Surface and Tractography Viewer Surface Opacity: Surface Overlay Display Range: Histogram Min: Max: Minimum Track Length: The pial surface is the "outer" cortical surface and represents the boundary between gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid. Typically, it is the surface that comes to mind when visually thinking of a brain. The gray matter is usually only a few millimeters thick and plays a key role in higher functioning and consciousness.
The Dark Side of Oxytocin, the Hormone of Love - Ethnocentrism Yes, you knew there had to be a catch. As oxytocin comes into sharper focus, its social radius of action turns out to have definite limits. The love and trust it promotes are not toward the world in general, just toward a person’s in-group. Oxytocin turns out to be the hormone of the clan, not of universal brotherhood. Psychologists trying to specify its role have now concluded it is the agent of ethnocentrism. A principal author of the new take on oxytocin is Carsten K. Brain Structures and Their Functions The nervous system is your body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made of nerves. Together they control every part of your daily life, from breathing and blinking to helping you memorize facts for a test. Nerves reach from your brain to your face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord... and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body.
A Glance at the Brain’s Circuit Diagram A new method facilitates the mapping of connections between neurons. The human brain accomplishes its remarkable feats through the interplay of an unimaginable number of neurons that are interconnected in complex networks. A team of scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, the University of Göttingen and the Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Göttingen has now developed a method for decoding neural circuit diagrams. Using measurements of total neuronal activity, they can determine the probability that two neurons are connected with each other. The human brain consists of around 80 billion neurons, none of which lives or functions in isolation.
Chapter 9: Limbic System The limbic system is a convenient way of describing several functionally and anatomically interconnected nuclei and cortical structures that are located in the telencephalon and diencephalon. These nuclei serve several functions, however most have to do with control of functions necessary for self preservation and species preservation. They regulate autonomic and endocrine function, particularly in response to emotional stimuli. They set the level of arousal and are involved in motivation and reinforcing behaviors. Additionally, many of these areas are critical to particular types of memory.
Digital Anatomist Interactive Atlases Structural Informatics GroupDepartment of Biological StructureUniversity of Washington Seattle, Washington, USA Atlases Content: 2-D and 3-D views of the brain from cadaver sections, MRI scans, and computer reconstructions.Author: John W. SundstenInstitution: Digital Anatomist Project, Dept. Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle. How the Brain Stops Time One of the strangest side-effects of intense fear is time dilation, the apparent slowing-down of time. It's a common trope in movies and TV shows, like the memorable scene from The Matrix in which time slows down so dramatically that bullets fired at the hero seem to move at a walking pace. In real life, our perceptions aren't keyed up quite that dramatically, but survivors of life-and-death situations often report that things seem to take longer to happen, objects fall more slowly, and they're capable of complex thoughts in what would normally be the blink of an eye. Now a research team from Israel reports that not only does time slow down, but that it slows down more for some than for others.