A Visual Introduction to Machine Learning Finding better boundaries Let's revisit the 240-ft elevation boundary proposed previously to see how we can improve upon our intuition. Clearly, this requires a different perspective. Explore big data analytics and Hadoop 1. Big data Big data refers to the size of a dataset that has grown too large to be manipulated through traditional methods. These methods include capture, storage, and processing of the data in a tolerable amount of time.
Panarchy Panarchy is a conceptual term first coined by the Belgian philosopher, economist, and botanist Paul Emile de Puydt in 1860, referring to a specific form of governance (-archy) that would encompass (pan-) all others. The Oxford English Dictionary lists the noun as "chiefly poetic" with the meaning "a universal realm," citing an 1848 attestation by Philip James Bailey, "the starry panarchy of space". The adjective panarchic "all-ruling" has earlier attestations. In the twentieth century the term was re-coined separately by scholars in international relations to describe the notion of global governance and then by systems theorists to describe non-hierarchical organizing theories. Freely choosing government In his 1860 article "Panarchy" de Puydt, who also expressed support for laissez-faire economics, applied the concept to the individual's right to choose any form of government without being forced to move from their current locale. Le Grand E. Global Society
Random forest The selection of a random subset of features is an example of the random subspace method, which, in Ho's formulation, is a way to implement classification proposed by Eugene Kleinberg. History The early development of random forests was influenced by the work of Amit and Geman which introduced the idea of searching over a random subset of the available decisions when splitting a node, in the context of growing a single tree. The idea of random subspace selection from Ho was also influential in the design of random forests. Spatial network analysis software As the domain of space syntax has expanded, there are now a plethora of tools associated with it. Since most were developed within the academic community, most tend to be free for academic use, and some are open source. In historical order:
Data mining Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science. It is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets ("big data") involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems. The overall goal of the data mining process is to extract information from a data set and transform it into an understandable structure for further use. Aside from the raw analysis step, it involves database and data management aspects, data pre-processing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization, and online updating. Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process, or KDD. Etymology Background The manual extraction of patterns from data has occurred for centuries. Research and evolution Computer science conferences on data mining include:
How to build a Hadoop data science team? Data scientists are in high demand these days. Everyone seems to be hiring a team of data scientists, yet many are still not quite sure what data science is all about, and what skill set they need to look for in a data scientist to build a stellar Hadoop data science team. We at Hortonworks believe data science is an evolving discipline that will continue to grow in demand in the coming years, especially with the growth of Hadoop adoption. Category:Panarchy The discussion of panarchy herein will be embryonic in nature. I will begin with the complete shape, but only in the simplest of forms. As I add more material, the overall structure will become more developed and clarified, but all of the essentials will have been laid out in the beginning. Panarchy is a transdisciplinary investigation into the political and cultural philosophy of "network culture." The primary fields of relevance for panarchy are world politics (international relations), political philosophy/theory, and information technology.
BackPropagation of Error algorithm proof The algorithm derivation below can be found in Brierley  and Brierley and Batty . Please refer to these for a hard copy. This idea was first described by Werbos  and popularised by Rumelhart et al.. Fig 1 A multilayer perceptron Consider the network above, with one layer of hidden neurons and one output neuron. When an input vector is propagated through the network, for the current set of weights there is an output Pred. Machine d'apprentissage pour le datamining : Weka An exciting and potentially far-reaching development in computer science is the invention and application of methods of machine learning (ML). These enable a computer program to automatically analyse a large body of data and decide what information is most relevant. This crystallised information can then be used to automatically make predictions or to help people make decisions faster and more accurately. Project Objectives
Knowledge extraction Knowledge extraction is the creation of knowledge from structured (relational databases, XML) and unstructured (text, documents, images) sources. The resulting knowledge needs to be in a machine-readable and machine-interpretable format and must represent knowledge in a manner that facilitates inferencing. Although it is methodically similar to information extraction (NLP) and ETL (data warehouse), the main criteria is that the extraction result goes beyond the creation of structured information or the transformation into a relational schema. It requires either the reuse of existing formal knowledge (reusing identifiers or ontologies) or the generation of a schema based on the source data.
Cloudera buys big data encryption specialist Gazzang Hadoop software company Cloudera has acquired Gazzang, a startup specializing in encryption software for big data environments. It’s Cloudera’s first significant acquisition (it bought machine learning startup Myrrix in 2012 in more of an “acquihire” situation) and it speaks to the importance of security as customers’ Hadoop deployments grow in scale and mature into production environments. The deal comes less than a month after Cloudera competitor Hortonworks acquired a security startup called XA Secure. Data architecture In information technology, data architecture is composed of models, policies, rules or standards that govern which data is collected, and how it is stored, arranged, integrated, and put to use in data systems and in organizations. Data is usually one of several architecture domains that form the pillars of an enterprise architecture or solution architecture. Overview A data architecture should[neutrality is disputed] set data standards for all its data systems as a vision or a model of the eventual interactions between those data systems. Data integration, for example, should be dependent upon data architecture standards since data integration requires data interactions between two or more data systems. A data architecture, in part, describes the data structures used by a business and its computer applications software. Essential to realizing the target state, Data Architecture describes how data is processed, stored, and utilized in an information system.
Shannon number Claude Shannon Shannon also estimated the number of possible positions, "of the general order of , or roughly 1043 ".