Support Watch this video using Windows Media Player Technical issues English Timeline requires Flash Player 10. To download fact sheets about the items in the timeline, your computer will need Adobe Reader installed. The timeline will operate best on screen resolutions of 1024 x 768 and higher. If your computer is responding slowly when moving over timelines, you can change the quality setting by clicking on the LQ/MQ/HQ button at the bottom right of your screen. LQ: Low quality, best for performance MQ: Medium Quality, better graphics but still good performance HQ: High quality, best for graphics but ideally suited for faster computers Navigating timelines Select a timeline by choosing from the 'Active Timeline' drop down menu at the top of the screen. Using your keyboard Use the left and right arrow keys on your keyboard to move from item to item in your active timeline. Using your mouse You can either: Item clusters Exploring items Click on an item to flip it over and explore it in more detail. Image
Grammar and Composition This index includes 427 references to both the Guide to Grammar and Writing and Principles of Composition. It does not, however, include references to the interactive Quizzes or to the Grammarlogs (posted responses to ASK GRAMMAR queries). The Frequently Asked Questions page and the Guide's Search Engine will also help you find help on grammatical issues, tips on composition, and advice on English usage. The Guide to Grammar and Writing is sponsored by the Capital Community College Foundation, a nonprofit 501 c-3 organization that supports scholarships, faculty development, and curriculum innovation. If you feel we have provided something of value and wish to show your appreciation, you can assist the College and its students with a tax-deductible contribution.
Language Timeline The English language is a vast flea market of words, handed down, borrowed or created over more than 2000 years. And it is still expanding, changing and trading. Our language is not purely English at all - it is a ragbag of diverse words that have come to our island from all around the world. Words enter the language in all sorts of ways: with invaders, migrants, tradesmen; in stories, artworks, technologies and scientific concepts; with those who hold power, and those who try to overthrow the powerful. View the chart below to get an overview of some of the many chapters in the history of the English language. Celts 500BC-43BC Romans 43BC-c.450AD Anglo Saxons 449AD St Augustine 597 AD Vikings 789AD Normans 1066 100 Years War 1337-1450s Renaissance 1476-1650 1700s Industrial Revolution 1760-1800s 1900s - Present Day References: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language by David Crystal Words in Time by Geoffrey Hughes
ESL: English as a Second Language Resources for Teachers and Students Jargon The roots of nauticalese go back many hundreds of years and involve many languages. While the seaman’s jargon sets him apart on the one hand, he eventually must come ashore and interact with those ignorant landlubbers. Like all cultures that interact over time, some language assimilation takes place among the dialects allowing previously “foreign, sea jargon” to creep silently into daily parlance of the mainstream. Over time the word origins are lost to all but the linguists and members of the in-group. Some words come more or less directly from other languages while others are constructed by the sailors themselves over time to connote specific objects and functions unique to their craft. A study of nauticalese etymology informs us of the origins of many words commonly used today and most are used with little or no apparent relationship to the sea. This nauticalese dialect has many hundreds of words. Consider the following vignette: 1. A modern bitt with two posts and a cross beam 2. 3.
Etymology: Languages that have contributed to English vocabulary over time. In Borrowed Words: A History of Loanwords in English, I examine how words borrowed from different languages have influenced English throughout its history. The above feature summarizes some of the main data from the book, focusing on the 14 sources that have given the most words to English, as reflected by the new and revised entries in the Oxford English Dictionary. Using the date buttons at the top of the graphic, you can compare the impact that different languages have made on English over time. If you switch to the "cumulative" view, then you can see how the total number of loanwords from each language has built up over time. The data lying behind this graphic reflects some of the biggest changes in the history of English. The elephant in the room, however, is how Latin and French dominate the picture in just about every period. A version of this post appeared on Oxford Dictionaries.
The Kurgan Origins The Kurgan peoples received their name from archeologists who defined and identified them by the type of burial mounds found in their cultures. These mounds were called ÎkurgsÌ. The reason why they play an important role in the history of the dance (and in the inner wisdom experienced within and carried through the dance) is because they were the first cultures identified as being fundamentally, per se, patriarchal. By this we mean that they were patrifocal, that they identified the primary as being male deity and that there was a certain type of hierarchy present. There also appears to have been more individuation in these cultures than in the matriarchal and matrifocal societies of the lands they swept into and inhabited. As they swept into and replace the older Neolithic cultures, much of the art and ways of direst knowledge was either lost or altered greatly. It is probably true that we can also call these people the original Indo - Europeans.
Slang Overview | What role does slang play in our language? How does slang both shape and reflect culture? In this lesson, students consider the slang words they use daily and the role slang plays in our culture. Then, they explore the etymologies of these and other slang words and display their findings in a visually interesting way, as well as compile a class dictionary. Materials | Computers with Internet access. Warm-Up | Tell students to work with a partner to recreate a recent or typical conversation, either verbal or via text message, they had with a friend. Walk around the room, peering over shoulders and choose a few of the more appropriate dialogues. Once the selected students have performed, ask: Which terms do you think adults would fail to understand? Related | In the Times Book Review essay “The Definitive Slang Dictionary,” the linguist Ben Zimmer examines efforts from 1937 to the present day to pin down and study slang: Questions | For discussion and reading comprehension:
Do you speak Uglish? How English has evolved in Uganda Please don’t dirten my shirt with your muddy hands. Stop cowardising and go and see that girl. Don’t just beep her again, bench her. Typos? No, we’re speaking Uglish (pronounced you-glish), a Ugandan form of English influenced by Luganda and other local dialects, which has produced hundreds of words with their own unique meanings. Some will be immediately obvious to English speakers: dirten, meaning to make dirty; cowardising, to behave like a coward. Others offer small insights into youth culture: beep – meaning to ring someone but to hang up quickly before the person answers. Now, Bernard Sabiti, a Ugandan cultural commentator has recorded these colloquialisms in a new book which attempts to unlock what he calls “one of the funniest and strangest English varieties in the world”. Working as a consultant for international NGOs, Sabiti kept being asked “what kind of English do Ugandans speak?” The result? He also credits local musicians for introducing a number of words into the lexicon.