Science Suggests That Humans Are Not Innately Violent And Vicious. Psychological and biological theories of aggression and violence stem from a debate that continues to this day, whether these qualities are innate in humans or not. These contrasting views are found throughout history in the writings of philosophers and scientific thinkers. Many subscribe to the Darwinian idea that violence is at the core of human life, that through competition and fighting to survive, only the fittest of species will move forward, evolve and survive. The purpose of this article is not to examine, dispute or confirm the theory of evolution, it’s to examine the claim that humans are innately vicious, competitive and violent, that these characteristics are burned into our genes.
If we take a look at a child from birth, they are unconditionally full of joy and they constantly want to explore and examine the world around them. What evidence can we draw upon to examine this question? Recent research conducted by Stanford University biologists Robert M. Sources: The McCollough Effect - An On-line Science Exhibit. Shareable. 6 Awesome Board Games That Teach Cooperation. Commonopoly in action.
Photo credit: Big Hope. The most popular board games are based on competition. Monopoly epitomizes the winner take all nature of the genre. But what happens when that model gets turned on its head in favor of a more collaborative approach which pits the players against the game itself? Cooperation, that's what. Whether winning means saving the world from infectious disease or corralling a bunch of puppies, it's all or nothing in the land of cooperative board games. And, because you are never too young — or too old! Commonopoly Object of Game: This oversized board game was inspired by the classic Monopoly, though not without a collaborative spin. Target Age: 12+ Number of Players: 2-4 Co-opoly Object of Game: Players work together to establish — and then run — a democratic business with all of the challenges inherent in such an endeavor. Target Age: 13+Number of Players: 2-4 Pandemic Object of Game: Here, players unite against four diseases with a goal of eradication.
What Happens When A Black Man Brings His White Girlfriend Into A Harlem Barbershop? [Watch] Study shows empathy in rats. The limits of collaborative consumption: Would people really share their belongings? An unofficial Google news blog Google Operating System has reported that the search giant is playing around with a potential new service called “Google Mine” — a Google+ feature that would allow users to share their real-life possessions with their social network. “Google Mine lets you share your belongings with your friends and keep up to date with what your friends are sharing,” the blogpost says. “It enables you to control which of your Google+ Circles you share an item with. It also lets you rate and review the items, upload photos of them and share updates on the Google+ Stream where your friends get to see and comment on them.” Google hasn’t commented publicly on the report.
It is constantly testing out new features and products, many of which never see the light of day. So if Google is, in fact, tinkering with Google Mine, it, too, could die in the laboratory. But it’s a good jumping-off point to talk about whether people would use such a service. But for the rest of the country? It's Heartbreaking To See How People React To The First Half Of His Test Compared To The Second. Skills learning program in middle schools dramatically reduces fighting. Middle school children who completed a social-emotional skills learning program at school were 42 percent less likely to engage in physical fighting a year later, according to a new study in the Journal of Adolescent Health. The study, which is ongoing, involves more than 3,600 children at 36 middle schools across Illinois and Kansas, the largest sample to date used to investigate the impact of a social-emotional skills learning program on the behavior of middle school students.
Dorothy Espelage, an educational psychologist in the College of Education at the University of Illinois and expert on bullying and youth violence, is the principal investigator on the study. The research is supported by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The module for sixth graders comprises 15 lessons, which trained teachers taught weekly or semiweekly over the course of an academic year. “The magnitude of this finding should not be minimized,” Espelage said. How Money Makes People Act Less Human. In a windowless room on the University of California, Berkeley, campus, two undergrads are playing a Monopoly game that one of them has no chance of winning. A team of psychologists has rigged it so that skill, brains, savvy, and luck—those ingredients that ineffably combine to create success in games as in life—have been made immaterial.
Here, the only thing that matters is money. One of the players, a brown-haired guy in a striped T-shirt, has been made “rich.” He got $2,000 from the Monopoly bank at the start of the game and receives $200 each time he passes Go. The second player, a chubby young man in glasses, is comparatively impoverished. T-Shirt isn’t just winning; he’s crushing Glasses. For a long time, primatologists have known that chimpanzees will act out social dominance with a special ferociousness, slapping hands, stamping feet, or “charging back and forth and dragging huge branches,” as Jane Goodall once wrote. She studies how poverty might change the brain.
Martha Farah studies the connection between socioeconomic status and the brain at the University of Pennsylvania. Martha Farah is the founding director for Penn's Center for Neuroscience and SocietyShe is looking at how social class relates to the brainHer previous work dealt with vision and memory Philadelphia (CNN) -- Martha Farah is leaning forward, furiously typing on her thin laptop in her spacious office at the University of Pennsylvania.
Awards, paintings and posters lean against the walls on the floor as she puts the final touches on a grant proposal. "I hate it, but I love it! " she exclaims, in a voice that often rises melodically to stress words with enthusiasm. "The adrenaline! " Farah, 57, built a career that has taken many exciting turns. A revolution in the works After completing her undergraduate education at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Farah studied experimental psychology in the 1970s and '80s at Harvard University, where she earned her Ph.D. How parenting matters. They Finally Tested The 'Prisoner's Dilemma' On Actual Prisoners — And The Results Were Not What You Would Expect. The “prisoner’s dilemma” is a familiar concept to just about anybody that took Econ 101.
The basic version goes like this. Two criminals are arrested, but police can’t convict either on the primary charge, so they plan to sentence them to a year in jail on a lesser charge. Each of the prisoners, who can’t communicate with each other, are given the option of testifying against their partner. If they testify, and their partner remains silent, the partner gets 3 years and they go free. If they both testify, both get two. In game theory, betraying your partner, or “defecting” is always the dominant strategy as it always has a slightly higher payoff in a simultaneous game. In sequential games, where players know each other’s previous behaviour and have the opportunity to punish each other, defection is the dominant strategy as well. However, on a Pareto basis, the best outcome for both players is mutual cooperation.
Sharing: Culture and the Economy in the Internet Age - By Philippe Aigrain. Paris, February 3rd, 2012 – Sharing: Culture and the Economy in the Internet Age is out! Philippe Aigrain, co-founder of La Quadrature du Net, in collaboration with Suzanne Aigrain, describes the creative contribution, a financial model designed to sustain an expanding creative economy in a context where sharing is recognized as a right. To break away from the repressive war on the sharing of culture online, exemplified by the SOPA/PIPA bills in the US or the ACTA agreement on a global scale, Sharing makes a case for the legitimacy and usefulness of non-market sharing between individuals of digital works.
Taking stock of recent economic knowledge about the culture economy, it models and describes a financing model (coined as the “creative contribution”) designed to sustain an expanding creative economy in a context where sharing is recognized as a right. Philosophical, legal, and institutional aspects are also discussed. all under a CC-By-NC-ND license, Useful links: About | www.sharing-thebook.com. Why your 8-year-old should be coding.
Learn-to-code startups abound these days, but one in particular is focusing on the very young and is having some success in elementary schools around the country — even underserved schools with no budgets for STEM but a great need for better tools. The startup is Tynker; it makes a web-based learning platform and a visual programming language for teachers and kids in K-12 classrooms. In a discussion with its co-founder, we found out why teaching kids how to code is so important to him. Krishna Vedati came to the U.S. in 1991 as a grad student from India. He got a master’s in computer science, then rode the dotcom wave at a handful of startups, including one he founded himself. After IPOs and acquisitions and the eventual bust, he found himself a decade older and wiser but still thinking about solving big-picture problems with technology — this time, a bit closer to home.
“I have two kids, nine and six, a boy and a girl. To clarify, these kids learn the logic of coding. Survival of the Nicest? A new theory of our origins says cooperation-not competition-is instinctive. Republished from yesmagazine.org By Eric Michael Johnson A century ago, industrialists like Andrew Carnegie believed that Darwin’s theories justified an economy of vicious competition and inequality. They left us with an ideological legacy that says the corporate economy, in which wealth concentrates in the hands of a few, produces the best for humanity. This was always a distortion of Darwin’s ideas. His 1871 book The Descent of Man argued that the human species had succeeded because of traits like sharing and compassion.
Nearly 150 years later, modern science has verified Darwin’s early insights with direct implications for how we do business in our society. Tomasello holds that there were two key steps that led to humans’ unique form of interdependence. However, this survival strategy brought an entirely new set of challenges: Individuals now had to coordinate their behaviors, work together, and learn how to share. Like what you’re reading? Interested? People Getting Dumber? Human Intelligence Has Declined Since Victorian Era, Research Suggests. Our technology may be getting smarter, but a provocative new study suggests human intelligence is on the decline. In fact, it indicates that Westerners have lost 14 I.Q. points on average since the Victorian Era. What exactly explains this decline? Study co-author Dr. Jan te Nijenhuis, professor of work and organizational psychology at the University of Amsterdam, points to the fact that women of high intelligence tend to have fewer children than do women of lower intelligence.
But this isn't the first evidence of a possible decline in human intelligence. "The reduction in human intelligence (if there is any reduction) would have begun at the time that genetic selection became more relaxed," Dr. As for Dr. te Nijenhuis and colleagues, they analyzed the results of 14 intelligence studies conducted between 1884 to 2004, including one by Sir Francis Galton, an English anthropologist and a cousin of Charles Darwin. The Gift Economy in Mali. New study suggests humans are not naturally violent.
J.G. VibesActivist Post A new study published last month in Nature Journalsuggests that humans are naturally good. This study adds to the mounting evidence against the popular misconception that corruption is a trait of human nature. In ten experiments using economic games, scientists observed that faster decisions result in more cooperation and generosity, while slower, calculated decisions show a decrease in cooperation and generosity. “To explain these results, we propose that cooperation is intuitive because cooperative heuristics are developed in daily life where cooperation is typically advantageous. Any scientific studies these days should be taken with a grain of salt, because we are without a doubt living in an era of soviet style science, where state and corporate entities are using the scientific establishment to project a particular worldview into the mainstream consciousness.
This statement made 5 propositions, which are: 1. Sources : Mesmerizing Photographs Of Soldiers' Faces Before And After A War. 2 Monkeys Were Paid Unequally; See What Happens Next. Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology | Study videos. 1. Warneken & Tomasello (2006) Science Warneken, F. & Tomasello, M. (2006). Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science, 311, 1301-1303. a. Clothespin Task The adult accidentally drops a marker on the floor and unsuccessfully reaches for it. B. C. D. A. B. C. D. 2. Warneken, F., Chen, F., & Tomasello, M. (2006). The videoclips show examples of the cooperation tasks used with 18- and 24-month old children and human-raised chimpanzees. A. B. C. D. A. B. 3. Warneken, F., Hare, B., Melis, A.P., Hanus, D., & Tomasello, M. (2007). These videoclips show examples from three experiments with 18-month-old children and semi-free ranging chimpanzees. 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5.
Legal notice: Without previous explicit written consent by the authors, any distribution, publication or copying, including download of the materials on this homepage is prohibited. Minority rules: Scientists discover tipping point for the spread of ideas. Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have found that when just 10 percent of the population holds an unshakable belief, their belief will always be adopted by the majority of the society. The scientists, who are members of the Social Cognitive Networks Academic Research Center (SCNARC) at Rensselaer, used computational and analytical methods to discover the tipping point where a minority belief becomes the majority opinion. The finding has implications for the study and influence of societal interactions ranging from the spread of innovations to the movement of political ideals. "When the number of committed opinion holders is below 10 percent, there is no visible progress in the spread of ideas.
It would literally take the amount of time comparable to the age of the universe for this size group to reach the majority," said SCNARC Director Boleslaw Szymanski, the Claire and Roland Schmitt Distinguished Professor at Rensselaer.