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Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive dissonance
In psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental stress or discomfort experienced by an individual who holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values at the same time, or is confronted by new information that conflicts with existing beliefs, ideas, or values.[1][2] Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance focuses on how humans strive for internal consistency. When inconsistency (dissonance) is experienced, individuals tend to become psychologically uncomfortable and they are motivated to attempt to reduce this dissonance, as well as actively avoiding situations and information which are likely to increase it.[1] Relationship between cognitions[edit] Individuals can adjust their attitudes or actions in various ways. Adjustments result in one of three relationships between two cognitions or between a cognition and a behavior.[1] Magnitude of dissonance[edit] The pressure to reduce cognitive dissonance is a function of the magnitude of said dissonance.[1] Reducing[edit] E.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance

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Bait and Switch The policy used by Bell Mobility to get more money out of their customers. They will *bait* you in with offers of really good stuff, then switch the offers around behind your back, often with the excuse of "that was just a promotion" or "you must have changed it yourself" Bell: We'll give you this really good plan. Cognitive Dissonance Explanations > Theories > Cognitive Dissonance Description | Research | Example | So What? | See also | References Description This is the feeling of uncomfortable tension which comes from holding two conflicting thoughts in the mind at the same time. Psychological manipulation Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the perception or behavior of others through underhanded, deceptive, or even abusive tactics.[1] By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at another's expense, such methods could be considered exploitative, abusive, devious, and deceptive. Social influence is not necessarily negative. For example, doctors can try to persuade patients to change unhealthy habits.

Archeologists Link Rise of Civilization and Beer's Invention (By Charles Q. Choi This story originally appeared on LiveScience) May beer have helped lead to the rise of civilization? It's a possibility, some archaeologists say. Their argument is that Stone Age farmers were domesticating cereals not so much to fill their stomachs but to lighten their heads, by turning the grains into beer. That has been their take for more than 50 years, and now one archaeologist says the evidence is getting stronger. Balance theory P-O-X model[edit] For example: a Person (P) who likes an Other (O) person will be balanced by the same valence attitude on behalf of the other. Symbolically, P (+) > O and P < (+) O results in psychological balance. This can be extended to things (X) as well, thus introducing triadic relationships.

kerfuffle - definition of kerfuffle in English noun British informal [in singular] A commotion or fuss, especially one caused by conflicting views. ‘there was a kerfuffle over the chairmanship’ ‘I can't think of any show I've ever been involved in that had such a kerfuffle around it.’ Cognitive Dissonance and learning Cognitive dissonance is a psychological phenomenon which refers to the discomfort felt at a discrepancy between what you already know or believe, and new information or interpretation. It therefore occurs when there is a need to accommodate new ideas, and it may be necessary for it to develop so that we become "open" to them. Neighbour (1992) makes the generation of appropriate dissonance into a major feature of tutorial (and other) teaching: he shows how to drive this kind of intellectual wedge between learners' current beliefs and "reality". Beyond this benign if uncomfortable aspect, however, dissonance can go "over the top", leading to two interesting side-effects for learning:

Perfect Persuasive Messages Craft messages that change minds using these 20 principles of persuasion, all based on established psychological research. Perfection is hard to achieve in any walk of life and persuasion is no different. It relies on many things going just right at the crucial moment; the perfect synchronisation of source, message and audience. But even if perfection is unlikely, we all need to know what to aim for. To bring you the current series on the psychology of persuasion I’ve been reading lots of research, much more than is covered in recent posts. As I read, I noticed the same themes cropping up over and over again. End-of-history illusion See also[edit] Pessimistic induction: Scientists believe their understanding of the world to be reasonably correct, even though previous generations of scientists wrongly believed the same thing about their ideas References[edit] External links[edit] Poulsen, Bruce (2013-01-27). "On the End of History Illusion".

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