COPPER DELAFOSSITE TRANSPARENT P-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS FOR DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS - APPLIED MATERIALS, INC. This application claims the benefit of U.S.
Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/203,336 filed Dec. 19, 2008, incorporated by reference in its entirety herein. The present invention relates to transparent p-type semiconductor materials, more specifically methods of manufacture of copper delafossite transparent p-type semiconductor material and devices comprising said copper delafossite material, including solar cells and transparent thin film transistors. Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), such as doped zinc oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium molybdenum oxide are widely used as conductive optically transparent electrodes. These oxides exhibit both high electrical conductivity and optical transparency, in the visible spectrum.
In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received considerable attention as a cost-effective alternative to conventional solar cells. Bees underwent massive extinction when dinosaurs did. For the first time ever, scientists have documented a widespread extinction of bees that occurred 65 million years ago, concurrent with the massive event that wiped out land dinosaurs and many flowering plants.
Their findings, published this week in the journal PLOS ONE, could shed light on the current decline in bee species. Lead author Sandra Rehan, an assistant professor of biological sciences at UNH, worked with colleagues Michael Schwarz at Australia's Flinders University and Remko Leys at the South Australia Museum to model a mass extinction in bee group Xylocopinae, or carpenter bees, at the end of the Cretaceous and beginning of the Paleogene eras, known as the K-T boundary.
Association of Biblical Counselors. The Big Give. Need Children who cannot afford a school uniform and shoes are not permitted to attend the government schools.
Due to HIV/AIDS there are many orphans being looked after by extended family members and in the poorest areas of Lusaka the family income is insufficient to provide for all these children. Many intelligent and willing children go uneducated. We have proven that many of these children can excel in education starting to transform the community. The problem is worse in rural areas. Solution Destiny school currently provides education to grade 9 entry examination. Aims To provide Grd 9-12 eduction to 200 HIV/AIDs orphans a year in a poor area of Lusaka. Welcome to the Frontpage. Zamsolar. Drinking Water Safety. Nothing ruins a good trip like getting sick -- and we're not talking about a few extra bathroom stops.
Contaminated drinking water is one of the leading sources of health problems for travelers, and can cause anything from mild gastrointestinal distress to serious bacterial diseases. The most common cause of water-borne illness is bacteria, such as E. coli, cholera and salmonella, but illness can also be caused by protozoa (including giardia and cryptosporidium), viruses (like hepatitis A, polio and rotavirus) and chemical pollutants. In many cases, travelers become ill simply because the pathogens in the water are foreign to their immune systems, while locals have adapted to the water supply and can drink it without problems.
Mexico is well known for its unsafe water (Montezuma's revenge, anyone?) , but travelers also face high risk in Central America, most of Africa and Asia, and the Middle East. WGBH American Experience . Jimmy Carter . Guinea Worm Disease. Since leaving the White House, Jimmy Carter has redefined the role of ex-President, using his status to help broker peace and fight disease worldwide.
The stubbornness and sense of moral purpose that disabled Carter during his presidency has served him well in these post-presidential crusades. The Carter Center was established in 1982 with the mandate of resolving political conflict and combating disease. The near-total eradication of Guinea Worm Disease is its most successful health effort. African Cichlid Disease Guide. Disease Help Center Copyright The FAQs owe their existence to the contributors of the net, and as such it belongs to the readers of rec.aquaria and alt.aquaria.
Articles with attributions are copyrighted by their original authors. Copies of the FAQs can be made freely, as long as it is distributed at no charge, and the disclaimers and the copyright notice are included. Causes. Humanitarian Aid and Development Assistance. As protracted internal conflicts have become more common and more deadly, the impact on civilians has multiplied.
Post-Cold War conflicts have caused over five million casualties, and 95 percent of these have been civilians. In 2001, it was estimated that 35 million people were affected in different ways by conflict worldwide. According to Kofi Annan, former Secretary-General of the United Nations, it is increasingly true that "the main aim ... [of conflicts] ... is the destruction not of armies but of civilians and entire ethnic groups.
These disturbing developments have necessitated extensive humanitarian relief efforts and development assistance to rebuild war-torn countries after conflict has ended. What Is Humanitarian Aid?
Electric, Hybrid & Biofuel Vehicle Projects. ForumBiodiversity.com » Anthropology Biodiversity Forum (ABF) Donate Now Goal amount for the next month: 180 EUR, Received: 35 EUR (19%) By donating, you not only support the continued existence of this site, you also improve this site in various ways, by making it affordable for ForumBiodiversity to upgrade the server with better hardware and licensed non-free proprietary software, but also motivating the staff to work harder.