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L-system trees form realistic models of natural patterns Origins[edit] 'Weeds', generated using an L-system in 3D. As a biologist, Lindenmayer worked with yeast and filamentous fungi and studied the growth patterns of various types of algae, such as the blue/green bacteria Anabaena catenula. Originally the L-systems were devised to provide a formal description of the development of such simple multicellular organisms, and to illustrate the neighbourhood relationships between plant cells. Later on, this system was extended to describe higher plants and complex branching structures. L-system structure[edit] The recursive nature of the L-system rules leads to self-similarity and thereby, fractal-like forms are easy to describe with an L-system. L-system grammars are very similar to the semi-Thue grammar (see Chomsky hierarchy). G = (V, ω, P), where The rules of the L-system grammar are applied iteratively starting from the initial state. Examples of L-systems[edit] Example 1: Algae[edit] start : A

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Fractal art Fractal art is a form of algorithmic art created by calculating fractal objects and representing the calculation results as still images, animations, and media. Fractal art developed from the mid-1980s onwards.[1] It is a genre of computer art and digital art which are part of new media art. The Julia set and Mandelbrot sets can be considered as icons of fractal art.[2] Patterns in nature Natural patterns form as wind blows sand in the dunes of the Namib Desert. The crescent shaped dunes and the ripples on their surfaces repeat wherever there are suitable conditions. Patterns in nature are visible regularities of form found in the natural world.

Songs of Innocence and of Experience Songs of Innocence and of Experience is an illustrated collection of poems by William Blake. It appeared in two phases. A few first copies were printed and illuminated by William Blake himself in 1789; five years later he bound these poems with a set of new poems in a volume titled Songs of Innocence and of Experience Showing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul. List of fractals by Hausdorff dimension Deterministic fractals[edit] Random and natural fractals[edit] See also[edit] Notes and references[edit] Further reading[edit]

Essential Math for Games Programmers As the quality of games has improved, more attention has been given to all aspects of a game to increase the feeling of reality during gameplay and distinguish it from its competitors. Mathematics provides much of the groundwork for this improvement in realism. And a large part of this improvement is due to the addition of physical simulation.

Concurrency (computer science) - Wikipedia A number of mathematical models have been developed for general concurrent computation including Petri nets, process calculi, the Parallel Random Access Machine model, the Actor model and the Reo Coordination Language. Concurrency theory has been an active field of research in theoretical computer science. One of the first proposals was Carl Adam Petri's seminal work on Petri Nets in the early 1960s. In the years since, a wide variety of formalisms have been developed for modeling and reasoning about concurrency. Some of these models of concurrency are primarily intended to support reasoning and specification, while others can be used through the entire development cycle, including design, implementation, proof, testing and simulation of concurrent systems. Some of these are based on message passing, while others have different mechanisms for concurrency.

Koch snowflake The first seven iterations in animation Zooming into the Koch curve The Koch snowflake (also known as the Koch star and Koch island[1]) is a mathematical curve and one of the earliest fractal curves to have been described. It is based on the Koch curve, which appeared in a 1904 paper titled "On a continuous curve without tangents, constructible from elementary geometry" (original French title: Sur une courbe continue sans tangente, obtenue par une construction géométrique élémentaire) by the Swedish mathematician Helge von Koch. Construction[edit]

Guerrilla Tool Development I have a weak spot for cool game development tools. Not the IDE, or art or sound tools – I mean the level editors, AI construction tools – those that developers develop specifically for their games. Those that you know could help you multiply your content, and craft your game just a little bit better. Unfortunately, if you work on a small team, developing sophisticated tools like that is pretty much out of the question. That does not mean you have to hardcode everything, though. Here I will give you some ideas for getting tools for your game on a tight budget.