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Bloom’s Taxonomy

Background Information | The Original Taxonomy | The Revised Taxonomy | Why Use Bloom’s Taxonomy? | Further Information The above graphic is released under a Creative Commons Attribution license. You’re free to share, reproduce, or otherwise use it, as long as you attribute it to the Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching. For a higher resolution version, visit our Flickr account and look for the “Download this photo” icon. Background Information In 1956, Benjamin Bloom with collaborators Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl published a framework for categorizing educational goals: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. The framework elaborated by Bloom and his collaborators consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The Original Taxonomy (1956) Here are the authors’ brief explanations of these main categories in from the appendix of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Handbook One, pp. 201-207):

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Learning Outcomes Most often we view results as the final outcome of an intervention that can easily be measured, such as reduced costs, customer satisfaction, improved quality, etc. However, often the results are going to be internal to the targeted individuals. These are known as learning outcomes or personal results. Kraiger, et. el. (1993) proposed that learning during training may be classified into one of three types of outcomes: cognitive, skill-based, and affective. In addition, each type of outcome includes particular categories and foci of measurement (the focus is on two points):

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Bananas and Monkeys Original source unknown. (But the story appears to have some basis in fact.) Start with a cage containing five monkeys. Inside the cage, hang a banana on a string and place a set of stairs under it. Before long, a monkey will go to the stairs and start to climb towards the banana. Importing Users into Active Directory from a CSV File Using PowerShell There are two aspects to this post – first is the CSV file with the user data and then there’s the PowerShell script to import the data into Active Directory. As an example, this how-to post will only set the first name, last name, username and password values for our user objects. Preparing the CSV file A template of the CSV file with sample data can be downloaded here (save it with a .csv extension). Here’s what it looks like: Populate the CSV file with the user data, making sure you enter the Distinguished Name of the Organisational Unit in the OU field.

Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains: The Cognitive Domain Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 under the leadership of educational psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom in order to promote higher forms of thinking in education, such as analyzing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures, and principles, rather than just remembering facts (rote learning). It is most often used when designing educational, training, and learning processes. The Three Domains of Learning The committee identified three domains of educational activities or learning (Bloom, et al. 1956): Cognitive: mental skills (knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (skills) Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use.

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