Using a FET as a Voltage Controlled Resistor An fet can be used as a voltage controlled resistor (vcr) where the resistance between the drain and source is controlled by the gate-source voltage. The resulting resistor is unfortunately non-linear; however, a simple linearisation circuit means that the fet vcr can be used even in situations where the non-linearities would cause difficulties. I have used this technique successfully both at audio and video frequencies. Typical applications include attenuators, amplifier and modulation circuits. Consider the characteristics of a JFET with pinch-off voltage = VP :
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Opamp Current Source Current Source with Floating Load CURR_SRC1.CIR Download the SPICE file Getting optimum performance in certain applications requires that some components - sensors, DC motors, transistors - be driven or biased by a constant current. We're mostly familiar with voltage regulators and their ability to maintain a constant voltage under varying current conditions. CAD/ CAM/ CAE/ PDM software Blender is a free 3D graphics application. It can be used for modeling, UV unwrapping, texturing, rigging, water simulations, skinning, animating, rendering, particle and other simulations, non-linear editing, compositing, and creating interactive 3D applications. Blender is available for several operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, IRIX, Solaris, NetBSD, FreeBSD, OpenBSD with unofficial ports for BeOS, SkyOS, AmigaOS, MorphOS and Pocket PC. Blender has a robust feature set similar in scope and depth to other high-end 3D software such as Softimage|XSI, Cinema 4D, 3ds Max, Lightwave and Maya. These features include advanced simulation tools such as rigid body, fluid, cloth and softbody dynamics, modifier based modeling tools, powerful character animation tools, a node based material and compositing system and Python for embedded scripting. Blender has a depth and breadth of features comparable to commercial, proprietary, high end and mid range 3D software.
555 Square Wave Generator This is a simple square waveoscillator using a 555 timer chip. A timing interval starts when the trigger input ("tr") goes lower than 1/3 Vin, or 3.33V. When this happens, the 555 output goes high, and the 555 waits for the threshold input ("th") to reach 2/3 Vin, or 6.67V. As the capacitor charges, the threshold input slowly rises until it reaches the required level. Then, the timing interval ends, the output goes low, and the capacitor is discharged through the "dis" input. Kid's Coloring, Drawing, Stickers & Painting Activity ABCya is the leader in free educational computer games and mobile apps for kids. The innovation of a grade school teacher, ABCya is an award-winning destination for elementary students that offers hundreds of fun, engaging learning activities. Millions of kids, parents, and teachers visit ABCya.com each month, playing over 1 billion games last year.
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Concise electronics for geeks Copyright (C) 2010 by Michal Zalewski <email@example.com> There are quite a few primers on electronics on the Internet; sadly, almost all of the top hits resort to gross oversimplifications (e.g., hydraulic analogies), or convenient omission, when covering subtle but incredibly important topics such as the real-world behavior of semiconductors. There are some exceptions, to be sure - but they tend to suffer from another malady: regressions into mundane, academic rigor, complete with differential equations and complex number algebra in transient analysis - a trait that is highly unlikely to be accessible, or even useful, to hobbyists. The physics of conduction [link] As you probably recall from your school years, the dated but still useful Bohr model of the atom explains that atoms consist of a dense center (nucleus) with a variable number of protons and neutrons.
Technical drawing tool Technical drawing tools are the tools used for technical drawing, including, aand not limited to: pens, rulers, compasses, and drawing utilities. Drawing tools may be used for measurement and layout of drawings, or to improve the consistency and speed of creation of standard drawing elements. Many of the tools used for manual technical drawing are obsolete, when computer-aided drawing has become common. The ship's steam machinery installation drawing for the iron-clad CSS Texas, 1865 History Although a variety of stylus that were developed in ancient times and were still being used in the 18th century, quills were generally used as the main drawing tool.
Transformers Basics, Maintenance and Diagnostics Transformers Basics, Maintenance and Diagnostics Transformer action depends upon magnetic lines of force (flux). At the instant a transformer primary is energized with AC, a flow of electrons (current) begins.