Vijñāna Vijñāna (Sanskrit; Devanagari: विज्ञान) or viññāṇa (Pāli; Devanagari: विञ्ञाण) is translated as "consciousness," "life force," "mind," or "discernment." Buddhism This section considers the Buddhist concept primarily in terms of Early Buddhism's Pali literature as well as in the literature of other Buddhist schools. Pali literature Throughout Pali literature, viññāṇa can be found as one of a handful of synonyms for the mental force that animates the otherwise inert material body. In a number of Pali texts though, the term has a more nuanced and context-specific (or "technical") meaning. (1) as a derivative of the sense bases (āyatana), part of the experientially exhaustive "All" (sabba); (2) as one of the five aggregates (khandha) of clinging (upadana) at the root of suffering (dukkha); and, Sense-base derivative Hence, in this context, viññāṇa includes the following characteristics: The aggregates "And why do you call it 'consciousness'? "... "No, lord."
Twelve Nidānas The Twelve Nidānas (Pali/Sanskrit: निदान nidāna "cause, foundation, source or origin") are an application of the Buddhist concept of pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination). They identify the origin of dukkha (suffering) to be in avijja (ignorance).[a] Descriptions of the twelve Nidanas Pali literature Several series of Nidanas are described in the suttas. Dīgha Nikāya Sutta 1, the Brahmajala Sutta, verse 3.71 describes six Nidanas: [...] Dīgha Nikāya, Sutta 14 describes ten links, and in Sutta 15 nine links are described, but without the six sense‑bases.  The Twelve Nidānas are explained in detail in the Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa, the central text of the Mahāvihāra commentarial tradition. Working from "bottom to top",Working from the "middle to the top",Working from "top to bottom",Working from the "middle to the source". The first method begins with ignorance and proceeds to sickness, old age, and death. The Twelve Nidanas The Twelve-fold Chain 1. 2. 3.
The Zeitgeist Movement Pratyekabuddha A Pratyekabuddha (Sanskrit: प्रत्येक बुद्ध) or Paccekabuddha (Pāli: पच्चेकबुद्ध), literally "a lone buddha", "a buddha on their own" or "a private buddha", is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism. The other two types are the arhats and samyaksambuddhas. Characteristics General overview The yāna or "vehicle" by which pratyekabuddhas achieve enlightenment is called the pratyekabuddhayāna, the "Pratyekabuddha Vehicle," in Indian Buddhist tradition. Pratyekabuddhas are said to achieve enlightenment on their own, without the use of teachers or guides, according to some traditions by contemplating the principle of dependent arising. Some schools assert that pratyekabuddhas are not omniscient, while others say that they are the same (in realisation) as Bodhisattvas, but do not have the will to teach the entire Dharma. In the Abhidharmasamuccaya In the Jātakas Pratyekabuddhas (e.g. And the Rhinoceros Sūtra
Śūnyatā Śūnyatā, (Sanskrit, also shunyata; Pali: suññatā), in Buddhism, translated into English as emptiness, voidness, openness, spaciousness, vacuity, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context. In Theravada Buddhism, suññatā often refers to the not-self (Pāli: anatta, Sanskrit: anātman)[note 1] nature of the five aggregates of experience and the six sense spheres. Suññatā is also often used to refer to a meditative state or experience. Etymology "Śūnyatā" (Sanskrit noun from the adj. śūnya or śhūnya: "zero, nothing") is usually translated as "emptiness". It is the noun form of the adjective "śūnya" (Sanskrit) which means "empty" or "void", hence "empti"-"ness" (-tā). Sunya comes from the root svi, meaning "hollow", plus -ta "-ness", therefore "hollow, hollowness". This word is ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo European root k̑eu- which means 'to swell' and also 'to grow'. Development of the concept Pali Canon Sakya
Ātman (Buddhism) Whereas Buddhism generally stresses the non-Self teachings of the Buddha, some Mahāyāna Buddhist sutras and tantras present cataphatic Buddhist teachings with positive language by asserting the ultimate reality of an atman [Self], which is equated with the essential, ultimate nature of mind (Dalai Lama — see relevant section below). This doctrine, also known as Tathāgatagarbha, is also seen as the inborn potential to become a Buddha. The Theravāda Dhammakaya Movement of Thailand also asserts the reality of the atman, which it equates with nirvana. Śāntideva (an 8th-century Indian Buddhist philosopher and practitioner) informs us that in order to be able to deny something, we first of all need to know what it is that we are denying. Without contacting the entity that is imputed You will not apprehend the absence of that entity. Candrakīrti contextualises ātman as follows: Ātman is an essence of things that does not depend on others; it is an intrinsic nature.
Ven. Prayudh Payutto (Ven. Phra Brahmagunabhorn)- Dependent Origination : The Buddhist Law of Conditionality Introduction The teaching of causal interdependence is the most important of Buddhist principles. It describes the law of nature, which exists as the natural course of things. The Buddha was no emissary of heavenly commandments, but the discoverer of this principle of the natural order, and the proclaimer of its truth to the world. The progression of causes and conditions is the reality which applies to all things, from the natural environment, which is an external, physical condition, to the events of human society, ethical principles, life events and the happiness and suffering which manifest in our own minds. The sciences which have evolved with human civilization, and which are influencing our lives so profoundly today, are said to be based on reason and rationality. Underneath it all, we tend to interpret such concepts as happiness, freedom, rights, liberty, and peace in ways that preserve self interests and encroach on others. P. An Overview of Dependent Origination "How amazing!
Buddhism World religion, founded by the Buddha Buddhism (/ˈbʊdɪzəm/, US also /ˈbuː-/) is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[web 1] Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region, Mongolia, and Kalmykia. Life of the Buddha Buddha in Sarnath Museum (Dhammajak Mutra) Saṃsāra Rebirth Zen
BG 220: Connections Between Yoga & Buddhism Podcast: Download Episode Description: We’re joined this week by Yoga and Buddhist meditation teacher Michael Stone. We begin by finding out how Michael got into spiritual practice, which happened to be at an early age through a profoundly spiritual uncle who suffered from schizophrenia. During his time in the asylum, visiting his uncle, he learned to meditate, to contemplative the words of great masters from the past, and to develop his own ideas regarding the spiritual path. This early exposure and interaction informed Michael’s future journey, when he ended up practiced deeply in both the yogic and Buddhist traditions. We finish our conversation by exploring some of the overlaps and deep connections between these wisdom schools, paying particular attention to the similarities between Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras and the early sutras of Siddhartha Buddha. This is part 1 of a two-part series. Episode Links: Transcript: Vincent: Hello, Buddhist Geeks. Michael: Oh, it’s good to be here.
Anatta In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit: अनात्मन्) refers to the perception of "not-self", recommended as one of the seven beneficial perceptions, which along with the perception of dukkha, and anicca, is also formally classified among the three marks of existence. Anatta in the Nikayas The ancient Indian word for self or essence is attā (Pāli) or ātman (Sanskrit), and is often thought to be an eternal substance that persists despite death. Hence the term anatta is often interpreted as referring to the denial of a self or essence. Anatta is used in the early Buddhist texts, as a strategy to view the perception of self as conditioned processes (or even an action), instead of seeing it as an entity or an essence. Taken together with the perceptions of anicca (impermanence) and dukkha (imperfection), anatta (not self) perception is the last of the three marks of existence, which when grasped strategically, leads to dispassion (nibbida). Karma and Anatta
Three marks of existence The Three marks of existence, within Buddhism, are three characteristics (Pali: tilakkhaṇa; Sanskrit: trilakṣaṇa) shared by all sentient beings, namely: impermanence (anicca); suffering or unsatisfactoriness (dukkha); non-self (Anatta). There is often a fourth Dharma Seal mentioned: Together the three characteristics of existence are called ti-lakkhana in Pali or tri-laksana in Sanskrit. By bringing the three (or four) seals into moment-to-moment experience through concentrated awareness, we are said to achieve wisdom—the third of the three higher trainings—the way out of samsara. Anicca [Pronounced Anitcha/Anitya] All compounded phenomena (things and experiences) are inconstant, unsteady, and impermanent. Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche states that in the four seals of the Mahayana, Nirvana should be viewed as "beyond extremes". Dukkha Whatever is impermanent is subject to change. Anatta Interpretations by various schools See also Buddhism
Buddhadasa Bhikkhu - Paticcasamuppada : Practical Dependent Origination Foreword The doctrine of paticcasamuppada [dependent origination] taught by the Buddha is profound; consequently, majority of people cannot understand the law of dependent origination. Nonetheless, it is as valid today as it was when the Buddha explained the doctrine to Ven. Ananda some 2500 years ago. The doctrine of dependent origination, the core of Buddhism, is so difficult to comprehend that people commit serious errors in understanding it, and thereby distort the Buddha Dhamma. The teachings of many mainstream schools are based on Buddhaghosa's essay. Proper understanding of dependent origination is essential. Buddhadasa Bhikkhu has strong basis in his interpretation of the doctrine of dependent origination. This book is very important to serious students of Buddhism. The Doctrine of Dependent Origination is Profound The doctrine of dependent origination, the core or essence of Buddhism, is profound. Ordinary people, however, are used to the concept of a continuing existence. I.
What is Pluralism? The plurality of religious traditions and cultures has come to characterize every part of the world today. But what is pluralism? Here are four points to begin our thinking: First, pluralism is not diversity alone, but the energetic engagement with diversity. Diversity can and has meant the creation of religious ghettoes with little traffic between or among them. Today, religious diversity is a given, but pluralism is not a given; it is an achievement. —Diana L.