background preloader


Facebook Twitter

Useful Resources for Self-Learning

Currency appreciation and depreciation. The depreciation of a country's currency refers to a decrease in the value of that country's currency.

Currency appreciation and depreciation

For instance, if the Canadian dollar depreciates relative to the euro, the exchange rate (the Canadian dollar price of euros) rises: it takes more Canadian dollars to purchase 1 euro (1 EUR=1.5 CAD → 1 EUR=1.7 CAD). When the Canadian dollar depreciates relative to the euro, Canadian goods become more competitive on world markets because their price when exchanged to euro will be lower. The result will be an increase in Canadian exports. On the other hand, European sellers that denominate their goods and services in euros will be less competitive, because European products denominated in euros will be more expensive in Canada.

The appreciation of a country's currency refers to an increase in the value of that country's currency. Currency. A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis) in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.[1][2] A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation.[3] Under this definition, British pounds, U.S. dollars, and European euros are examples of currency.


Aggregate demand and aggregate supply. This topic is called 'Aggregate demand and supply.

Aggregate demand and aggregate supply

But before we look at these concepts, it is important that you understand the 'big picture'. The circular flow of income is a good place to start. It shows all of the money coming into an economy (injections) and all of the money that goes out of an economy (leakages or withdrawals). It allows you to see the 'general' reasons why an economy might grow or shrink in size. Macroeconomics.

Circulation in macroeconomics.


Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets. This includes national, regional, and global economies.[1][2] With microeconomics, macroeconomics is one of the two most general fields in economics.

While macroeconomics is a broad field of study, there are two areas of research that are emblematic of the discipline: the attempt to understand the causes and consequences of short-run fluctuations in national income (the business cycle), and the attempt to understand the determinants of long-run economic growth (increases in national income).

Macroeconomic models and their forecasts are used by governments to assist in the development and evaluation of economic policy. Basic macroeconomic concepts[edit] Output and income[edit] Unemployment[edit] Main article: Unemployment. Exchange rate. Government debt. Government debt (also known as public debt, national debt and sovereign debt)[1][2] is the debt owed by a central government.

Government debt

(In federal states, "government debt" may also refer to the debt of a state or provincial, municipal or local government.) By contrast, the annual "government deficit" refers to the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year, that is, the increase of debt over a particular year. Government debt is one method of financing government operations, but it is not the only method. Governments can also create money to monetize their debts, thereby removing the need to pay interest. But this practice simply reduces government interest costs rather than truly canceling government debt,[3] and can result in hyperinflation if used unsparingly. Economic policy. Economic policy refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field.

Economic policy

It covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labor market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy. Most factors of economic policy can be divided into either fiscal policy, which deals with government actions regarding taxation and spending, or monetary policy, which deals with central banking actions regarding the money supply and interest rates. Such policies are often influenced by international institutions like the International Monetary Fund or World Bank as well as political beliefs and the consequent policies of parties. Politique budgétaire. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

Politique budgétaire

Dans la pratique, il est surtout question des politiques budgétaires de stimulation de l'activité, dans les périodes de creux économique, sous la forme de baisse de l'imposition ou de hausse de certaines dépenses, ce qui conduit à une dégradation du solde public. À l'inverse, dans les périodes de croissance économique élevée (hors période de bulle spéculative), la discipline budgétaire doit permettre de réduire le déficit public, voire de constituer des excédents, qui seront mobilisables ultérieurement.

Outils[modifier | modifier le code] Les deux composantes de la politique budgétaire sont : Effets[modifier | modifier le code] Politique de demande[modifier | modifier le code] Si l'État verse davantage d'argent aux ménages (aide sociale), ou leur en prélève moins (baisse des impôts), les ménages vont augmenter leur consommation et la demande adressée aux entreprises (politique de demande). Politique monétaire.