Currency appreciation and depreciation. The depreciation of a country's currency refers to a decrease in the value of that country's currency. For instance, if the Canadian dollar depreciates relative to the euro, the exchange rate (the Canadian dollar price of euros) rises: it takes more Canadian dollars to purchase 1 euro (1 EUR=1.5 CAD → 1 EUR=1.7 CAD). When the Canadian dollar depreciates relative to the euro, Canadian goods become more competitive on world markets because their price when exchanged to euro will be lower. The result will be an increase in Canadian exports. On the other hand, European sellers that denominate their goods and services in euros will be less competitive, because European products denominated in euros will be more expensive in Canada.
The appreciation of a country's currency refers to an increase in the value of that country's currency. How currency appreciates See also References Google Define: Currency depreciation. Currency. A currency (from Middle English: curraunt, "in circulation", from Latin: currens, -entis) in the most specific use of the word refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money (monetary units) in common use, especially in a nation. Under this definition, British pounds, U.S. dollars, and European euros are examples of currency.
These various currencies are stores of value, and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, and each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote, coin, and money. The latter definition, pertaining to the currency systems of nations, is the topic of this article. History Aggregate demand and aggregate supply. This topic is called 'Aggregate demand and supply. But before we look at these concepts, it is important that you understand the 'big picture'. The circular flow of income is a good place to start. It shows all of the money coming into an economy (injections) and all of the money that goes out of an economy (leakages or withdrawals).
It allows you to see the 'general' reasons why an economy might grow or shrink in size. Once you can see the 'big picture' we can then look at the specifics of aggregate demand and aggregate supply. Let's start with the simplest model. In this very simple model of the whole economy, it is assumed that the households own all the factors of production. The firms then use these factors to produce goods and services. Although this model is very simple, it does emphasise one very important point. So the size of an economy can be measured using either the income, output or expenditure method. Including leakages and injections We are still missing something. Macroeconomics. Circulation in macroeconomics. Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets.
This includes national, regional, and global economies. With microeconomics, macroeconomics is one of the two most general fields in economics. While macroeconomics is a broad field of study, there are two areas of research that are emblematic of the discipline: the attempt to understand the causes and consequences of short-run fluctuations in national income (the business cycle), and the attempt to understand the determinants of long-run economic growth (increases in national income). Macroeconomic models and their forecasts are used by governments to assist in the development and evaluation of economic policy. Basic macroeconomic concepts Output and income Unemployment Main article: Unemployment IS–LM 1. Exchange rate. In finance, an exchange rate (also known as a foreign-exchange rate, forex rate, FX rate or Agio) between two currencies is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
It is also regarded as the value of one country’s currency in terms of another currency. For example, an interbank exchange rate of 119 Japanese yen (JPY, ¥) to the United States dollar (US$) means that ¥119 will be exchanged for each US$1 or that US$1 will be exchanged for each ¥119. In this case it is said that the price of a dollar in terms of yen is ¥119, or equivalently that the price of a yen in terms of dollars is $1/119. Exchange rates are determined in the foreign exchange market, which is open to a wide range of different types of buyers and sellers where currency trading is continuous: 24 hours a day except weekends, i.e. trading from 20:15 GMT on Sunday until 22:00 GMT Friday.
The spot exchange rate refers to the current exchange rate. Retail exchange market Quotations Government debt. Government debt (also known as public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a central government. (In federal states, "government debt" may also refer to the debt of a state or provincial, municipal or local government.) By contrast, the annual "government deficit" refers to the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year, that is, the increase of debt over a particular year. Government debt is one method of financing government operations, but it is not the only method.
Governments can also create money to monetize their debts, thereby removing the need to pay interest. But this practice simply reduces government interest costs rather than truly canceling government debt, and can result in hyperinflation if used unsparingly. As the government draws its income from much of the population, government debt is an indirect debt of the taxpayers. History The sealing of the Bank of England Charter (1694) By country Risk
Economic policy. Economic policy refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field. It covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labor market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy. Most factors of economic policy can be divided into either fiscal policy, which deals with government actions regarding taxation and spending, or monetary policy, which deals with central banking actions regarding the money supply and interest rates.
Such policies are often influenced by international institutions like the International Monetary Fund or World Bank as well as political beliefs and the consequent policies of parties. Types of economic policy Almost every aspect of government has an important economic component. Macroeconomic stabilization policy Fiscal policy, often tied to Keynesian economics, uses government spending and taxes to guide the economy. Notes. Politique budgétaire. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Dans la pratique, il est surtout question des politiques budgétaires de stimulation de l'activité, dans les périodes de creux économique, sous la forme de baisse de l'imposition ou de hausse de certaines dépenses, ce qui conduit à une dégradation du solde public. À l'inverse, dans les périodes de croissance économique élevée (hors période de bulle spéculative), la discipline budgétaire doit permettre de réduire le déficit public, voire de constituer des excédents, qui seront mobilisables ultérieurement.
Outils[modifier | modifier le code] Les deux composantes de la politique budgétaire sont : Effets[modifier | modifier le code] Politique de demande[modifier | modifier le code] Si l'État verse davantage d'argent aux ménages (aide sociale), ou leur en prélève moins (baisse des impôts), les ménages vont augmenter leur consommation et la demande adressée aux entreprises (politique de demande). Politique de l'offre[modifier | modifier le code] Politique monétaire. La politique monétaire est l'action par laquelle l'autorité monétaire, en général la banque centrale, agit sur l'offre de monnaie dans le but de remplir son objectif de triple stabilité, à savoir la stabilité des taux d'intérêt, la stabilité des taux de change et la stabilité des prix.
Elle tâche également d'atteindre les autres objectifs de la politique économique, qualifiés de triangle keynésien : la croissance, le plein emploi, l'équilibre extérieur. Depuis le début de la crise économique de 2008, les Banques centrales ont de plus en plus recours à des politiques dites non conventionnelles dont l'assouplissement quantitatif (en anglais Quantitative easing). La politique monétaire se distingue de la politique budgétaire. Ces deux politiques interagissent et forment ensemble le policy-mix.
Historique[modifier | modifier le code] Au XIXe siècle, les objectifs de la politique monétaire font l’objet d’un débat : Entre 1920 et 1940, il faut gérer les séquelles de la Première Guerre mondiale.