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Counter-Reformation

Counter-Reformation
A copy of the Vulgate (the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible) printed in 1590, after many of the Council's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship. The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival[1] or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements: Ecclesiastical or structural reconfigurationReligious ordersSpiritual movementsPolitical dimensions Council of Trent[edit] A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving. Pope Paul III (1534–1549) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. Religious orders[edit] Politics: The Netherlands[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Counter-Reformation

Related:  Reformation vs. Counter-Reformation

THE REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFO by James Jackson Background At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Catholic church, modeled upon the bureaucratic structure of the Holy Roman Empire, had become extremely powerful, but internally corrupt. From early in the twelfth century onward there were calls for reform. Between 1215 and 1545 nine church-councils were held with church reforms as their primary intent. The councils all fail to reach significant accord.

The Reformation and Counter Reformation The Reformation and Counter Reformation Europe's Search For Stability The Reformation was the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century; its greatest leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Protestant Reformation Although the core motivation behind these changes was theological, many other factors played a part, including the rise of nationalism, the Western Schism which eroded people's faith in the Papacy, the corruption of the Curia, and the new learning of the Renaissance which questioned much traditional thought. On a technological level the invention of the printing press proved extremely significant in that it provided the means for the rapid dissemination of new ideas. The Roman Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent and spearheaded by the new order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) specifically organized to counter the Protestant movement. In general, Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, turned Protestant. Southern Europe remained Roman Catholic, while Central Europe was a site of fierce conflict, escalating to full-scale war. Religious situation in Europe[edit]

"Rome, the Renaissance and Counter Reformation" EtruscansAncient Rome Medieval Rome RenaissanceBaroqueModern Rome The reaction of Pope Paul III (1534 - 1549, Alessandro Farnese) to the Protestant reform was to summon the council of Trent (1545-1563) and the Counter-Reformation. The most vividly remembered result is the Holy Inquisition which had begun in Spain and which the church extended to other countries. The objective of the Counter-Reformation was to use moral persuasion and the Holy Inquisition to minimise the effects of the (northern) reformers in an attempt to maintain unity of faith and of the Catholic church.

Renaissance technology Renaissance science spawned the Scientific Revolution; science and technology began a cycle of mutual advancement. Basic technology[edit] Some important Renaissance technologies, including both innovations and improvements on existing techniques: Late 15th century[edit] The arquebus and the musket.

The Reformation Unleashed in the early sixteenth century, the Reformation put an abrupt end to the relative unity that had existed for the previous thousand years in Western Christendom under the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformation, which began in Germany but spread quickly throughout Europe, was initiated in response to the growing sense of corruption and administrative abuse in the church. It expressed an alternate vision of Christian practice, and led to the creation and rise of Protestantism, with all its individual branches. Images, especially, became effective tools for disseminating negative portrayals of the church (Satire on Popery, 53.677.5), and for popularizing Reformation ideas; art, in turn, was revolutionized by the movement. Though rooted in a broad dissatisfaction with the church, the birth of the Reformation can be traced to the protests of one man, the German Augustinian monk Martin Luther (1483–1546) (Martin Luther as a Monk, 20.64.21; Martin Luther, 55.220.2).

THE COUNTER REFORMATION In the sixteenth century the Roman church undertook to reform itself. This reform movement, extending into the following century, raised the moral and educational standards of the clergy; inspired the church with a renewed zeal and morale, which enabled it to win back areas endangered by Protestantism; and contributed significantly to producing the Catholic church as we know it today. The chief agencies in carrying out this work were the papacy, which was much different from the papacy of the Renaissance; a group of religious orders, some reformed and some new, most notably the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits; and the Council of Trent. The Inquisition and the Roman Index of Prohibited Books also had a part in the work. The spirit of the Catholic Reformation was a spirit of zeal and ardor for the faith, a recognition of abuses in the church and a dedication to the work of reform, and an attitude of intolerance toward heresy.

The Counter-Reformation The subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Significance of the term II. The European Renaissance and Reformation: · Humanism: the focus of the Renaissance was the notion that Human beings were talented, and had the potential for great interests, achievements and capabilities. Zeal was established to recover the talented aspects of our past. The revival was interested in focusing on the Greco-Roman tradition of the past. · Pope Nicholas V: established a repository at the Vatican library that collected some 9000 manuscripts. The Renaissance answer to Nineveh.

History of science in the Renaissance During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, and engineering. The rediscovery of ancient scientific texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and the invention of printing which would democratize learning and allow a faster propagation of new ideas. But, at least in its initial period, some see the Renaissance as one of scientific backwardness. Historians like George Sarton and Lynn Thorndike have criticized how the Renaissance affected science, arguing that progress was slowed for some amount of time. Humanists favored human-centered subjects like politics and history over study of natural philosophy or applied mathematics. Others have focused on the positive influence of the Renaissance, pointing to factors like the rediscovery of lost or obscure texts and the increased emphasis on the study of language and the correct reading of texts.

What is the difference between the Catholic Reformation and Counter Reformation The Counter Reformation is generally seen as the Roman Catholic reaction to the Protestant reformation; primarily via the Council of Trent (From 13 December, 1545, and concluding on 4 December, 1563). Trent is often referred to as the Counter Reformation Council. From my research there is no one point in history that can be pointed to as the Catholic Reformation. The term Catholic Reformation is problematic in the sense the Catholic Church has been reforming itself since the beginning. Because men are in control of the Church, errors in practice and discipline have crept in at times over the centuries. The Catholic Church has since the beginning held Ecumenical Councils where leaders (bishops and cardinals) met to interpret God's will on faith, and morals.

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