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Counter-Reformation

Counter-Reformation
A copy of the Vulgate (the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible) printed in 1590, after many of the Council's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship. The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival[1] or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements: Ecclesiastical or structural reconfigurationReligious ordersSpiritual movementsPolitical dimensions Council of Trent[edit] A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving. Pope Paul III (1534–1549) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. Religious orders[edit] Politics: The Netherlands[edit] Related:  Reformation vs. Counter-ReformationScipione Borghese

THE REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFO by James Jackson Background At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Catholic church, modeled upon the bureaucratic structure of the Holy Roman Empire, had become extremely powerful, but internally corrupt. In the first half of the sixteenth century western Europe experienced a wide range of social, artistic, and geo-political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church. In the Roman church a series of powerful popes including Leo X and Paul III responded to reform demands in various ways. The Reformation and Art Protestant reformers rejected the use of visual arts in the church. Martin Luther Martin Luther (1483-1546) while studying law at the University of Erfurt in Germany experiences a spiritual conversion. In 1517 a jubilee indulgence was being preached near Wittenberg to generate funds for the building of Saint Peter's in Rome. Luther was summoned to an imperial Diet in Augsburg in 1518. Europe Divided Counter-reformation The Visual Arts Architecture -End-

The Reformation and Counter Reformation The Reformation and Counter Reformation Europe's Search For Stability The Reformation was the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century; its greatest leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Having far-reaching political, economic and social effects, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. The world of the late medieval Catholic Church from which the 16th-century reformers emerged was a complex one. The Reformation of the 16th century was not unprecedented. The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform movements arose independently of Luther. From the group surrounding Zwingli emerged those more radical than himself. The Reformation spread to other European countries over the course of the 16th century. In England the Reformation's roots were primarily political rather than religious. The age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation

Renaissance technology Renaissance science spawned the Scientific Revolution; science and technology began a cycle of mutual advancement. Basic technology[edit] Some important Renaissance technologies, including both innovations and improvements on existing techniques: Late 15th century[edit] The arquebus and the musket. 15th century[edit] The technologies that arose or developed in Europe during the second half of the 15th century were commonly associated by authorities of the time with a key theme in Renaissance thought: the rivalry of the Moderns and the Ancients. Crank and connecting rod Printing press Two printers operating a Gutenberg-style printing press (1568). The invention of the printing press by the German goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg (1398–1468) is widely regarded as the single most important event of the second millennium,[7] and is one of the defining moments of the Renaissance. Parachute Veranzio's 1595 parachute design titled "Flying Man" Mariner's astrolabe Dry dock 16th century[edit] Floating dock

"Rome, the Renaissance and Counter Reformation" EtruscansAncient Rome Medieval Rome RenaissanceBaroqueModern Rome The reaction of Pope Paul III (1534 - 1549, Alessandro Farnese) to the Protestant reform was to summon the council of Trent (1545-1563) and the Counter-Reformation. The most vividly remembered result is the Holy Inquisition which had begun in Spain and which the church extended to other countries. The objective of the Counter-Reformation was to use moral persuasion and the Holy Inquisition to minimise the effects of the (northern) reformers in an attempt to maintain unity of faith and of the Catholic church. Nevertheless the Reformist movement gained the support of many national states of northern Europe which were keen to challenge the political strength and material wealth of the Roman church. The church employed the newly founded Jesuit order as a tool to stem heresy through moral persuasion and teaching as well as a missionary vehicle aimed at Christianisation of the New World. Food for thought…..

Protestant Reformation Although the core motivation behind these changes was theological, many other factors played a part, including the rise of nationalism, the Western Schism which eroded people's faith in the Papacy, the corruption of the Curia, and the new learning of the Renaissance which questioned much traditional thought. On a technological level the invention of the printing press proved extremely significant in that it provided the means for the rapid dissemination of new ideas. The Roman Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent and spearheaded by the new order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) specifically organized to counter the Protestant movement. Religious situation in Europe[edit] History and origins[edit] Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum (Unity of the Brethren), Moravian Church (Bohemian Brethren) date their origins to Jan Huss in the early 15th century. Earlier schisms[edit] 16th century[edit] Literacy[edit] Switzerland[edit]

The Catholic Counter-Reformation THE COUNTER REFORMATION In the sixteenth century the Roman church undertook to reform itself. This reform movement, extending into the following century, raised the moral and educational standards of the clergy; inspired the church with a renewed zeal and morale, which enabled it to win back areas endangered by Protestantism; and contributed significantly to producing the Catholic church as we know it today. The chief agencies in carrying out this work were the papacy, which was much different from the papacy of the Renaissance; a group of religious orders, some reformed and some new, most notably the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits; and the Council of Trent. The Inquisition and the Roman Index of Prohibited Books also had a part in the work. The spirit of the Catholic Reformation was a spirit of zeal and ardor for the faith, a recognition of abuses in the church and a dedication to the work of reform, and an attitude of intolerance toward heresy. Orders of women also were active in this movement.

History of science in the Renaissance During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, and engineering. The rediscovery of ancient scientific texts was accelerated after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and the invention of printing which would democratize learning and allow a faster propagation of new ideas. But, at least in its initial period, some see the Renaissance as one of scientific backwardness. Marie Boas Hall coined the term Scientific Renaissance to designate the early phase of the Scientific Revolution, 1450–1630. Context[edit] During and after the Renaissance of the 12th century, Europe experienced an intellectual revitalization, especially with regard to the investigation of the natural world. The Renaissance[edit] The 14th century saw the beginning of the cultural movement of the Renaissance. But this initial period is usually seen as one of scientific backwardness. Important developments[edit] Alchemy[edit] Astronomy[edit] Medicine[edit]

The European Renaissance and Reformation: · Humanism: the focus of the Renaissance was the notion that Human beings were talented, and had the potential for great interests, achievements and capabilities. Zeal was established to recover the talented aspects of our past. The revival was interested in focusing on the Greco-Roman tradition of the past. · Pope Nicholas V: established a repository at the Vatican library that collected some 9000 manuscripts. The Renaissance answer to Nineveh. · Leonardo Bruni: Florentine rhetorician and historian developed Humanism as a term/philosophy. · Pico della Mirandola: wrote on the Dignity of Man, best represented the study of the classics to understand human nature. · Secularism: everything Medieval focused on the afterlife, whereas the Renaissance focused on the here and now…often relating to material things (those things often relating to religion.) Lorenzo Valla: wrote on pleasure, defended the pleasures of the senses as the highest good, and offered the doctrine for the period.

Bernini’s Statues in the Villa Borghese « Ben Drum’s Rome Summer Blog The Borghese were one of the most influential families in early 17th century Rome. Originating in Siena, where the Borghese gained power through appointments to communes, the family moved to Rome under the guidance of Marcantonio in 1541. The family rose to power in 1605, when Marcantonio’s son Camillo Borghese was picked as the compromise candidate between two front-runner cardinals in a surprising papal election. Original Layout of the Borghese Gallery By initially putting the viewer at a non-dominant viewing angle, the movement of the sculpture can dictate the movement of the viewer, who would be forced to walk around the statue as it gradually unfolded. Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius (1618-9) Bernini’s first commission was the sculpture of Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius or The Flight from Troy. This sculpture is most similar to father’s style and separated from his three later commissions chronologically by three years due to Bernini’s work on Neptune and Triton. Apollo Belvedere

The Reformation | Thematic Essay Unleashed in the early sixteenth century, the Reformation put an abrupt end to the relative unity that had existed for the previous thousand years in Western Christendom under the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformation, which began in Germany but spread quickly throughout Europe, was initiated in response to the growing sense of corruption and administrative abuse in the church. It expressed an alternate vision of Christian practice, and led to the creation and rise of Protestantism, with all its individual branches. Though rooted in a broad dissatisfaction with the church, the birth of the Reformation can be traced to the protests of one man, the German Augustinian monk Martin Luther (1483–1546) (Martin Luther as a Monk, 20.64.21; Martin Luther, 55.220.2). The movement Luther initiated spread and grew in popularity—especially in Northern Europe, though reaction to the protests against the church varied from country to country.

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