In the sixteenth century the Roman church undertook to reform itself. This reform movement, extending into the following century, raised the moral and educational standards of the clergy; inspired the church with a renewed zeal and morale, which enabled it to win back areas endangered by Protestantism; and contributed significantly to producing the Catholic church as we know it today. The chief agencies in carrying out this work were the papacy, which was much different from the papacy of the Renaissance; a group of religious orders, some reformed and some new, most notably the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits; and the Council of Trent. The Inquisition and the Roman Index of Prohibited Books also had a part in the work. The spirit of the Catholic Reformation was a spirit of zeal and ardor for the faith, a recognition of abuses in the church and a dedication to the work of reform, and an attitude of intolerance toward heresy. Orders of women also were active in this movement.
Related: Reformation vs. Counter-Reformation
What is the difference between the Catholic Reformation and Counter ReformationThe Counter Reformation is generally seen as the Roman Catholic reaction to the Protestant reformation; primarily via the Council of Trent (From 13 December, 1545, and concluding on 4 December, 1563). Trent is often referred to as the Counter Reformation Council. From my research there is no one point in history that can be pointed to as the Catholic Reformation. The term Catholic Reformation is problematic in the sense the Catholic Church has been reforming itself since the beginning. Because men are in control of the Church, errors in practice and discipline have crept in at times over the centuries. Examples: it was at the 1st Vatican Council(8 December, 1869, through 20 October, 1870) that the Roman Catholic Church declared that the Pope was infallible when speaking on faith and morals. Best of luck! Fr. Counter Reformation: St. * The Spiritual Exercises trans. Robert Bellarmine St. * The Ascent of Mt. St.
Reformation timelineServetus moved to Paris. In previous years he had become a physician; he continued this practice. In one of his writings from his time in Paris is a passage which suggests that blood circulates through the body. "The Dissolution of the Smaller Monasteries" was passed. Cromwell directed the suppression of monasteries. The English "Ten Articles" were adopted. Jan 7: Catherine of Aragon died. Jan 29: Catherine of Aragon buried. Feb: Calvin met Heinrich Bullinger in Basel. Feb: Calvin, using his old pseudonym of Charles d'Espeville, traveled to Italy. Mar: Calvin's first edition of "Institutes of the Christian Religion" was published by Basel printers Thomas Platter and Balthasar Lasius. Spring: Calvin returned to Basel. May 19: The Little Council of Geneva, with the guidance of Farel, asked the people if they wanted "to live according to the new reformation of the faith." May 19: Anne Boleyn beheaded. Jul 12: Erasmus died in Basel. Jul 15: Calvin left France for Strasbourg.
Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Counter ReformationThroughout the middle ages the Catholic Church sunk deeper into a pit of scandal and corruption. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation. During the reign of Pope Leo X, discontent amongst Catholics in Europe was at an all-time high. The challenge from Luther caught the Pope by surprise. In 1545, the leaders of the Catholic Church gathered in the Northern Italian city of Trent for an emergency conference. After 20-years of debate, the Council of Trent established the basis for a Catholic counter-attack. The “Index of Forbidden Books” was published, naming and shaming 583 heretical texts, including most translations of the Bible and the works of Erasmus, Calvin and Luther. A new agency of obedience was created.
Reformation- Definition"Rome, the Renaissance and Counter Reformation"EtruscansAncient Rome Medieval Rome RenaissanceBaroqueModern Rome The reaction of Pope Paul III (1534 - 1549, Alessandro Farnese) to the Protestant reform was to summon the council of Trent (1545-1563) and the Counter-Reformation. The most vividly remembered result is the Holy Inquisition which had begun in Spain and which the church extended to other countries. Nevertheless the Reformist movement gained the support of many national states of northern Europe which were keen to challenge the political strength and material wealth of the Roman church. The church employed the newly founded Jesuit order as a tool to stem heresy through moral persuasion and teaching as well as a missionary vehicle aimed at Christianisation of the New World. All in all the Counter Reformation resulted in a more strict and centralised control of the Catholic faith, meaning that many liberties which had developed to that point were tightened up so as to prevent further reformist movements from developing within.
The Reformation | Thematic EssayUnleashed in the early sixteenth century, the Reformation put an abrupt end to the relative unity that had existed for the previous thousand years in Western Christendom under the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformation, which began in Germany but spread quickly throughout Europe, was initiated in response to the growing sense of corruption and administrative abuse in the church. It expressed an alternate vision of Christian practice, and led to the creation and rise of Protestantism, with all its individual branches. Images, especially, became effective tools for disseminating negative portrayals of the church (Satire on Popery, 53.677.5), and for popularizing Reformation ideas; art, in turn, was revolutionized by the movement. Though rooted in a broad dissatisfaction with the church, the birth of the Reformation can be traced to the protests of one man, the German Augustinian monk Martin Luther (1483–1546) (Martin Luther as a Monk, 20.64.21; Martin Luther, 55.220.2).
THE REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFOby James Jackson Background At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Catholic church, modeled upon the bureaucratic structure of the Holy Roman Empire, had become extremely powerful, but internally corrupt. From early in the twelfth century onward there were calls for reform. Between 1215 and 1545 nine church-councils were held with church reforms as their primary intent. In the first half of the sixteenth century western Europe experienced a wide range of social, artistic, and geo-political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church. In the Roman church a series of powerful popes including Leo X and Paul III responded to reform demands in various ways. The Reformation and Art Protestant reformers rejected the use of visual arts in the church. Martin Luther Martin Luther (1483-1546) while studying law at the University of Erfurt in Germany experiences a spiritual conversion. Luther was summoned to an imperial Diet in Augsburg in 1518. Europe Divided The Visual Arts
Glossary Definition: ReformationA term covering a number of changes in Western Christianity (Europe) between the 14th and 17th centuries, resulting in the split in Christianity between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. The Reformation, widely conceived, was a reaction against the hierarchical and legalistic structures of the Papacy and the Roman Catholic Church. Reformers rallied against the Roman Catholic Church's dogmatic theology, economic and religious exploitation of the common masses, and colonialization and conquest of indigenous peoples. One particularly well-known Catholic method of exploitation in the Middle Ages was the practice of selling indulgences, a monetary payment of penalty which, supposedly, absolved one of past sins and/or released one from purgatory after death. Luther, one of the main Protestant Reformers, eventually arrived at the conclusion that divine relationship and salvation come by grace through faith, not by good works, belief in dogma, or economic propitiation.
Counter Reformation- DefinitionCounter-ReformationA copy of the Vulgate (the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible) printed in 1590, after many of the Council's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship. The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements: Ecclesiastical or structural reconfigurationReligious ordersSpiritual movementsPolitical dimensions Council of Trent A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving. Pope Paul III (1534–1549) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. Religious orders Politics: The Netherlands