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by James Jackson Background At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Catholic church, modeled upon the bureaucratic structure of the Holy Roman Empire, had become extremely powerful, but internally corrupt. From early in the twelfth century onward there were calls for reform. Between 1215 and 1545 nine church-councils were held with church reforms as their primary intent. In the first half of the sixteenth century western Europe experienced a wide range of social, artistic, and geo-political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church. In the Roman church a series of powerful popes including Leo X and Paul III responded to reform demands in various ways. The Reformation and Art Protestant reformers rejected the use of visual arts in the church. Martin Luther Martin Luther (1483-1546) while studying law at the University of Erfurt in Germany experiences a spiritual conversion. Luther was summoned to an imperial Diet in Augsburg in 1518. Europe Divided The Visual Arts

The Reformation and Counter Reformation The Reformation and Counter Reformation Europe's Search For Stability The Reformation was the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century; its greatest leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Having far-reaching political, economic and social effects, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. The world of the late medieval Catholic Church from which the 16th-century reformers emerged was a complex one. Over the centuries, the church, particularly in the office of the papacy, had become deeply involved in the political life of Western Europe. The Reformation of the 16th century was not unprecedented. The Reformation movement within Germany diversified almost immediately, and other reform movements arose independently of Luther. From the group surrounding Zwingli emerged those more radical than himself. The age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation Back to Main menu

Music and the Counter Reformation The Council of Trent To respond to the influence of Protestantism with its emphasis on unmediated, individual devotion, the Roman Catholic curia convened the many sessions which together are known as the Council of Trent. In the context of reforming the liturgy, the church laid down precepts governing how music should be conceived and set. I should like, in short, when a Mass is to be sung in church, that its music be framed according to the fundamental subject of the words, in harmonies and rhythms apt to move our affections to religion and piety, and likewise in Psalms, Hymns, and other praises that are offered to God..... In our times they have put all their industry and effort into the composition of fugues, [a technique of imitation] so that while one voice says, "Sanctus" another says "Sabaoth," still another "Gloria Tua" with howling, bellowing and stammering, so that they more nearly resemble cats in January than flowers in May. Index

1.16 Legacy of the Reformation 1.16 Legacy of the Reformation 1.16a Division of Christendom The most obvious result of the Reformation was the division of western Christendom into a number of hostile sects. 1.16b Religious Intolerance The evil of religious intolerance accompanied the split in western Christendom. The fall-out of the religious intolerance was that the rulers of every state in central and Western Europe, whether they were Catholic or Protestant sought to base their political unity on the religious unity. Kings of the Catholic countries, especially Spain, Portugal and Italy used every means to keep their countries free from Protestants. The Reformation resulted in a series of religious wars that kept Europe in turmoil for many years. The immediate result of the religious upheaval of the 16th century was religious intolerance, war and bloodshed. 1.16c Promotion of Individualism The Reformation greatly encouraged the development of individualism. 1.16d Development of Education 1.16e Promotion of Nationalism

The Reformation and its Impact - Durham World Heritage Site The Reformation was a decisive moment in English history – one that had a major impact on what it means to be English, even today. How did it affect Durham? The Reformation saw the breaking away of the English Church from the Catholic Church in Rome in 1534 and the installation of King Henry VIII as its Supreme Head. Anne Boleyn, one of the reasons Henry VIII sought to break away from the Church in Rome. © Wikipedia What caused the Reformation? The reformation was a combination of several factors: a century of dissatisfaction with the Catholic Church, whose popes and bishops were demonstrating an increasing abuse of spiritual power for political and material gain; Henry VIII’s desire to obtain a divorce and the Catholic Church’s refusal to grant him one; and the political ambitions of members of Henry’s court. Henry’s Request for Divorce Apart from the ideological reasons for the pope’s refusal, there were political considerations as well. English Autonomy The Dissolution of the Monasteries

Counter-Reformation A copy of the Vulgate (the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible) printed in 1590, after many of the Council's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship. The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival[1] or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements: Ecclesiastical or structural reconfigurationReligious ordersSpiritual movementsPolitical dimensions Council of Trent[edit] A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving. Pope Paul III (1534–1549) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. Religious orders[edit] Politics: The Netherlands[edit]

Reformed Church Music 1. Introduction The Christian church did not separate theology and music. It is useful to model ourselves on the theological thoughts about music of the early church. It can be useful and instructive to take note of the information available. 2. The vision of Aurelius Augustine (345 - 430) on church music had large impact on the music of the church. - He promoted the singing of praises to God; - Augustine stressed the importance of singing not just with the mouth, but also with the heart and deeds. - The praise in singing is a foretaste of the abundant joy of our prospective live on the new earth. 3. The mathematical approach of the ancient times and Middle Ages was discontinued after the Reformation. Calvin says in his sermon about Psalm 148 that the sun and other created things can not produce any sound by themselves, that we can notice, since they have no understanding of the beauty God laid in them. 4. Until the 16th century music was approached by way of theology.

1500-1600 End of the Renaissance and the Reformation At this point in history there is only one church in the West -- the Catholic Church -- under the leadership of the Pope in Rome. The Church had been for some time a notoriously corrupt institution plagued by internal power struggles (at one point in the late 1300s and 1400s there was a power struggle within the church resulting in not one, but three Popes!), and Popes and Cardinals often lived more like Kings or Emperors than spiritual leaders. Martin Luther, a German priest, began the Protestant Reformation (before we go on, notice that Protestant contains the word "protest" and that reformation contains the word "reform" -- this was an effort, at least at first, to protest against some of the practices of the Catholic Church and to reform the Church). 1. Luther, a very devout man, had experienced a spiritual crisis. 2. 3. Luther attacked one of the most obvious abuses of the time -- the sale of indulgences by the Church. 4. These are some of the outcomes of the Council: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Reformation seen today. THE COUNTER REFORMATION In the sixteenth century the Roman church undertook to reform itself. This reform movement, extending into the following century, raised the moral and educational standards of the clergy; inspired the church with a renewed zeal and morale, which enabled it to win back areas endangered by Protestantism; and contributed significantly to producing the Catholic church as we know it today. The chief agencies in carrying out this work were the papacy, which was much different from the papacy of the Renaissance; a group of religious orders, some reformed and some new, most notably the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits; and the Council of Trent. The Inquisition and the Roman Index of Prohibited Books also had a part in the work. The spirit of the Catholic Reformation was a spirit of zeal and ardor for the faith, a recognition of abuses in the church and a dedication to the work of reform, and an attitude of intolerance toward heresy. Orders of women also were active in this movement.

Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. The term, "Counter-Reformation," was still unknown in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and was coined later by non-Catholic historians to denote a Catholic reaction to the Reformation. Thus, it carries a defensive and even negative tone. The Counter-Reformation, or the Catholic Reformation, was comprehensive. The Counter-Reformation is usually understood to have began from Pope Paul III (1534-1549), who authorized the Society of Jesus in 1540, established the Roman Inquisition in 1542, and initiated the Council of Trent in 1545. The Counter-Reformation was very successful in building the Church in South America and Asia mainly through the missionary work of Jesuits. Historical background Three main instruments The Counter-Reformation had three main instruments: The Council of Trent, the Roman Inquisition, and the the Society of Jesus. The Council of Trent

Reformation timeline Servetus moved to Paris. In previous years he had become a physician; he continued this practice. In one of his writings from his time in Paris is a passage which suggests that blood circulates through the body. "The Dissolution of the Smaller Monasteries" was passed. Cromwell directed the suppression of monasteries. The English "Ten Articles" were adopted. Jan 7: Catherine of Aragon died. Jan 29: Catherine of Aragon buried. Feb: Calvin met Heinrich Bullinger in Basel. Feb: Calvin, using his old pseudonym of Charles d'Espeville, traveled to Italy. Mar: Calvin's first edition of "Institutes of the Christian Religion" was published by Basel printers Thomas Platter and Balthasar Lasius. Spring: Calvin returned to Basel. May 19: The Little Council of Geneva, with the guidance of Farel, asked the people if they wanted "to live according to the new reformation of the faith." May 19: Anne Boleyn beheaded. Jul 12: Erasmus died in Basel. Jul 15: Calvin left France for Strasbourg.

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Catholic Counter Reformation Catholic Counter Reformation By: muff Events: 14 Editors: view all » Views: 338 dont have one Added: Nov 11, 2008 Modified: Nov 11, 2008 Category: Tags: reformation Related Links: Add this timeline to a list / favorite Embed ShareThis Embed Customize: You can embed this timeline to your blog, website, or other web pages. Change the embed timeline size: Copy the below code and insert to the page you want: This timeline is part of these lists The Catholic Counter-Reformation