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by James Jackson Background At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Catholic church, modeled upon the bureaucratic structure of the Holy Roman Empire, had become extremely powerful, but internally corrupt. From early in the twelfth century onward there were calls for reform. Between 1215 and 1545 nine church-councils were held with church reforms as their primary intent. In the first half of the sixteenth century western Europe experienced a wide range of social, artistic, and geo-political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church. In the Roman church a series of powerful popes including Leo X and Paul III responded to reform demands in various ways. The Reformation and Art Protestant reformers rejected the use of visual arts in the church. Martin Luther Martin Luther (1483-1546) while studying law at the University of Erfurt in Germany experiences a spiritual conversion. Luther was summoned to an imperial Diet in Augsburg in 1518. Europe Divided The Visual Arts

The Reformation | Thematic Essay Unleashed in the early sixteenth century, the Reformation put an abrupt end to the relative unity that had existed for the previous thousand years in Western Christendom under the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformation, which began in Germany but spread quickly throughout Europe, was initiated in response to the growing sense of corruption and administrative abuse in the church. It expressed an alternate vision of Christian practice, and led to the creation and rise of Protestantism, with all its individual branches. Images, especially, became effective tools for disseminating negative portrayals of the church (Satire on Popery, 53.677.5), and for popularizing Reformation ideas; art, in turn, was revolutionized by the movement. Though rooted in a broad dissatisfaction with the church, the birth of the Reformation can be traced to the protests of one man, the German Augustinian monk Martin Luther (1483–1546) (Martin Luther as a Monk, 20.64.21; Martin Luther, 55.220.2).

Counter-Reformation A copy of the Vulgate (the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible) printed in 1590, after many of the Council's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship. The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival[1] or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements: Ecclesiastical or structural reconfigurationReligious ordersSpiritual movementsPolitical dimensions Council of Trent[edit] A session of the Council of Trent, from an engraving. Pope Paul III (1534–1549) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–1563), a commission of cardinals tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, indulgences, and other financial abuses. Religious orders[edit] Politics: The Netherlands[edit]

The Reformation and its Impact - Durham World Heritage Site The Reformation was a decisive moment in English history – one that had a major impact on what it means to be English, even today. How did it affect Durham? The Reformation saw the breaking away of the English Church from the Catholic Church in Rome in 1534 and the installation of King Henry VIII as its Supreme Head. Anne Boleyn, one of the reasons Henry VIII sought to break away from the Church in Rome. © Wikipedia What caused the Reformation? The reformation was a combination of several factors: a century of dissatisfaction with the Catholic Church, whose popes and bishops were demonstrating an increasing abuse of spiritual power for political and material gain; Henry VIII’s desire to obtain a divorce and the Catholic Church’s refusal to grant him one; and the political ambitions of members of Henry’s court. Henry’s Request for Divorce Apart from the ideological reasons for the pope’s refusal, there were political considerations as well. English Autonomy The Dissolution of the Monasteries

The Reformation Jean Calvin To contemporaries, the reordering of religion and the sundering of the social unity that it had once provided to European culture was the most significant development of the sixteenth century. It is impossible to understand the time without taking a look at this. The Pre-Reform The rediscovery of the learning of the ancient world, the printing press, and all the other forces that came together to create the Renaissance also affected the Church. The early years of the sixteenth century were graced by some great Christian humanist intellects: Erasmus, Lefèvre d'Etaples, and others. The Gallican Tradition Since Clovis, the French crown has had a special relationship to the church. Luther In 1517, a dispute about who was entitled to a cut of the revenues generated by itinerant papal indulgence sellers provoked the controversy that led the Augustinian monk, Martin Luther, to nail his 95 theses to the church door at Wittenburg. As it turns out, it could not. The Day of the Placards

education : Juan Luis Vives Juan Luis Vives Strongly influenced by Erasmus was Juan Luis Vives, who, though of Spanish origin, spent his life in various parts of Europe—Paris, Louvain, Oxford, London, Bruges. His most significant writings were De institutione foeminae Christianae (1523; “On the Education of a Christian Woman”), De ratione studii puerilis (“On the Right Method of Instruction for Children”), De subventione pauperum (1526; “On Aid for the Poor”), and De tradendis disciplinis (1531; “On the Subjects of Study”). Not only was his vision of the organic unity of pedagogy new, but he was the first of the humanists to emphasize the importance of popular education. He felt that it was the responsibility of the city to provide instruction for the poor and that the craft and merchant guilds had an important contribution to make to education.

Reformation seen today. Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Counter Reformation Throughout the middle ages the Catholic Church sunk deeper into a pit of scandal and corruption. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation. During the reign of Pope Leo X, discontent amongst Catholics in Europe was at an all-time high. The challenge from Luther caught the Pope by surprise. In 1545, the leaders of the Catholic Church gathered in the Northern Italian city of Trent for an emergency conference. After 20-years of debate, the Council of Trent established the basis for a Catholic counter-attack. The “Index of Forbidden Books” was published, naming and shaming 583 heretical texts, including most translations of the Bible and the works of Erasmus, Calvin and Luther. A new agency of obedience was created.

1500-1600 End of the Renaissance and the Reformation At this point in history there is only one church in the West -- the Catholic Church -- under the leadership of the Pope in Rome. The Church had been for some time a notoriously corrupt institution plagued by internal power struggles (at one point in the late 1300s and 1400s there was a power struggle within the church resulting in not one, but three Popes!), and Popes and Cardinals often lived more like Kings or Emperors than spiritual leaders. Martin Luther, a German priest, began the Protestant Reformation (before we go on, notice that Protestant contains the word "protest" and that reformation contains the word "reform" -- this was an effort, at least at first, to protest against some of the practices of the Catholic Church and to reform the Church). 1. Luther, a very devout man, had experienced a spiritual crisis. 2. 3. Luther attacked one of the most obvious abuses of the time -- the sale of indulgences by the Church. 4. These are some of the outcomes of the Council: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Talk:Counter-Reformation End of article is wanting[edit] This article is in need of a "summary and legacy" section at the end. This article ends very abruptly and I think its inappropriate for a period of history that had so many reaching effects. —Preceding unsigned comment added by (talk) 20:56, 18 December 2009 (UTC) A lot of work to do here[edit] Wow, there is a lot of work to do here. Anyway, am chipping away at this, if anyone out there is interested, give me a holler! == I've deleted the signed comment suggesting this page be moved. Requested move to Catholic Reformation[edit] The following discussion is an archived debate of the proposal. The result of the debate was no consensus for the move --Philip Baird Shearer 22:06, 22 June 2006 (UTC) I would like to propose that this article be moved to "Catholic Reformation." Counter-Reformation → Catholic Reformation — The term "Counter-Reformation" implies that the movement was anti-reform. Survey[edit] Discussion[edit] —Mira 05:50, 18 June 2006 (UTC)

Music and the Counter Reformation The Council of Trent To respond to the influence of Protestantism with its emphasis on unmediated, individual devotion, the Roman Catholic curia convened the many sessions which together are known as the Council of Trent. In the context of reforming the liturgy, the church laid down precepts governing how music should be conceived and set. I should like, in short, when a Mass is to be sung in church, that its music be framed according to the fundamental subject of the words, in harmonies and rhythms apt to move our affections to religion and piety, and likewise in Psalms, Hymns, and other praises that are offered to God..... In our times they have put all their industry and effort into the composition of fugues, [a technique of imitation] so that while one voice says, "Sanctus" another says "Sabaoth," still another "Gloria Tua" with howling, bellowing and stammering, so that they more nearly resemble cats in January than flowers in May. Index

Renaissance vs. Reformation Difference between Renaissance and Reformation Spanning between the 1500-1800 A.D, was a cultural movement that had its origin in Florence, in Italy, and ultimately spread throughout the rest of Europe. On the other hand, Reformation that started in 1517 was a reform movement, started by the Christians of Europe that resulted in the splitting up of Christianity into Catholics and Protestants. While the word, Renaissance, usually refers to such an era in the world history that was culturally very rich and prospering, on the other hand, Reformation denotes to such an era that was much into religion and religious activities. Reformation saw the people or rather the Protestants or reformers, opposing the doctrines, the practices of, as well as the structure of the Roman Catholic, with and intention of forming, or rather creating new churches for the Protestants.

Music Forms/Styles of the Renaissance Humanism in Music In Italy during the Renaissance, a new philosophy called "humanism" developed. The emphasis of humanism is on the quality of life on earth, much different from earlier beliefs that life should be viewed as a preparation for death. By this time the influence of the Church on the arts grew weak, composers and their patrons were ready for new artistic ideas. Flemish composers and musicians were summoned to teach and perform in Italian courts and the invention of printing helped spread these new ideas. Imitative Counterpoint Josquin Desprez became one of the most important composers of this period. Madrigals By the 1500s, the simplicity of earlier madrigals were replaced by more elaborate forms, using 4 to 6 voice parts. Religion and Music Religious Reformation occurred in the early half of the 1500s. Other Protestant denominations were established as a result of the Reformation. There were changes within the Catholic Church as well. Instrumental Music