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THE REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFO

THE REFORMATION AND COUNTER-REFO
by James Jackson Background At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Catholic church, modeled upon the bureaucratic structure of the Holy Roman Empire, had become extremely powerful, but internally corrupt. From early in the twelfth century onward there were calls for reform. Between 1215 and 1545 nine church-councils were held with church reforms as their primary intent. The councils all fail to reach significant accord. In the first half of the sixteenth century western Europe experienced a wide range of social, artistic, and geo-political changes as the result of a conflict within the Catholic church. In the Roman church a series of powerful popes including Leo X and Paul III responded to reform demands in various ways. The Reformation and Art Protestant reformers rejected the use of visual arts in the church. Martin Luther Martin Luther (1483-1546) while studying law at the University of Erfurt in Germany experiences a spiritual conversion. Europe Divided Counter-reformation -End-

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Related:  Reformation vs. Counter-Reformation

Counter-Reformation A copy of the Vulgate (the Latin edition of the Catholic Bible) printed in 1590, after many of the Council's reforms had begun to take place in Catholic worship. The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival[1] or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter-Reformation was a comprehensive effort composed of four major elements: Counter-Reformation (religious history Alternate titles: Catholic Reformation; Catholic Revival Counter-Reformation, also called Catholic Reformation, or Catholic Revival, in the history of Christianity, the Roman Catholic efforts directed in the 16th and early 17th centuries both against the Protestant Reformation and toward internal renewal; the Counter-Reformation took place during roughly the same period as the Protestant Reformation, actually (according to some sources) beginning shortly before Martin Luther’s act of nailing the Ninety-Five Theses to the church door (1517). Early calls for reform grew out of criticism of the worldly attitudes and policies of the Renaissance popes and many of the clergy. New religious orders and other groups ... (100 of 552 words)

The Counter-Reformation The subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Significance of the term II. Low ebb of Catholic fortunes III. St. Ignatius and the Jesuits, pioneers of the new movement IV. The Reformation and its Impact - Durham World Heritage Site The Reformation was a decisive moment in English history – one that had a major impact on what it means to be English, even today. How did it affect Durham? The Reformation saw the breaking away of the English Church from the Catholic Church in Rome in 1534 and the installation of King Henry VIII as its Supreme Head. Anne Boleyn, one of the reasons Henry VIII sought to break away from the Church in Rome.

The Reformation and Counter Reformation The Reformation and Counter Reformation Europe's Search For Stability The Reformation was the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century; its greatest leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Having far-reaching political, economic and social effects, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. The world of the late medieval Catholic Church from which the 16th-century reformers emerged was a complex one. Over the centuries, the church, particularly in the office of the papacy, had become deeply involved in the political life of Western Europe. Comparing Medieval and Renaissance Music by Rit Nosotro Comparative Essay Compare Medieval and Renaissance Music Thesis: Summary: The Medieval and Renaissance periods represent two distinct cultures and worldviews.

Counter-Reformation: History, Facts, Timeline, Causes and Definition The Counter-Reformation was a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in the wake of the Protestant Reformation. It involved clarification and reform in the areas of doctrine, ecclesiastical structure, religious orders, spirituality, and politics. Such reforms included the foundation of seminaries for the proper training of priests in the spiritual life and the theological traditions of the Church, the reform of religious life to returning orders to their spiritual foundations, and new spiritual movement's focus on the devotional life and a personal relationship with Christ. Counter-Reformation

The Reformation Unleashed in the early sixteenth century, the Reformation put an abrupt end to the relative unity that had existed for the previous thousand years in Western Christendom under the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformation, which began in Germany but spread quickly throughout Europe, was initiated in response to the growing sense of corruption and administrative abuse in the church. It expressed an alternate vision of Christian practice, and led to the creation and rise of Protestantism, with all its individual branches. Images, especially, became effective tools for disseminating negative portrayals of the church (Satire on Popery, 53.677.5), and for popularizing Reformation ideas; art, in turn, was revolutionized by the movement. Though rooted in a broad dissatisfaction with the church, the birth of the Reformation can be traced to the protests of one man, the German Augustinian monk Martin Luther (1483–1546) (Martin Luther as a Monk, 20.64.21; Martin Luther, 55.220.2).

Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Counter Reformation Throughout the middle ages the Catholic Church sunk deeper into a pit of scandal and corruption. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation. Story of the Church - The English Puritans Beginnings What is a Puritan? First we must define what we mean by "puritan." What is the difference between the Catholic Reformation and Counter Reformation The Counter Reformation is generally seen as the Roman Catholic reaction to the Protestant reformation; primarily via the Council of Trent (From 13 December, 1545, and concluding on 4 December, 1563). Trent is often referred to as the Counter Reformation Council. From my research there is no one point in history that can be pointed to as the Catholic Reformation. The term Catholic Reformation is problematic in the sense the Catholic Church has been reforming itself since the beginning. Because men are in control of the Church, errors in practice and discipline have crept in at times over the centuries.

The Reformation and art The Protestant Reformation during the 16th century in Europe ushered in a new artistic tradition that embraced the Protestant agenda and diverged drastically from the southern European tradition and the humanist art produced during the High Renaissance. In turn, the Catholic Counter-Reformation both reacted against and responded to Protestant criticisms of art in Roman Catholicism to produce a more stringent style of Catholic art. Protestant religious art both embraced Protestant values and assisted in the proliferation of Protestantism, but the amount of religious art produced in Protestant countries was hugely reduced.

Story of the Church - Reformation Conclusion Progress of the Reformation 1517-1688 Germany After several years of war in Germany between the Emperor and Catholic princes against the Protestant princes, complicated by the involved politics of Francis of France, Charles of Germany, and the Pope, the Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555. In this treaty, the different German princes were to determine the religion of their subject lands. This has been called the principle of cuius regio, eius religio (whose the region, his the religion). THE COUNTER REFORMATION In the sixteenth century the Roman church undertook to reform itself. This reform movement, extending into the following century, raised the moral and educational standards of the clergy; inspired the church with a renewed zeal and morale, which enabled it to win back areas endangered by Protestantism; and contributed significantly to producing the Catholic church as we know it today. The chief agencies in carrying out this work were the papacy, which was much different from the papacy of the Renaissance; a group of religious orders, some reformed and some new, most notably the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits; and the Council of Trent. The Inquisition and the Roman Index of Prohibited Books also had a part in the work.

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