# [Ancient] Artifacts & Symbols

## Egyptian

Tărtăria tablets. The Tărtăria tablets are three tablets, discovered in 1961 by archaeologist Nicolae Vlassa at a Neolithic site in the village of Tărtăria (about 30 km (19 mi) from Alba Iulia), in Romania. The tablets, dated to around 5300 BC,[2] bear incised symbols - the Vinča symbols - and have been the subject of considerable controversy among archaeologists, some of whom claim that the symbols represent the earliest known form of writing in the world. In 1961, members of a team led by Nicolae Vlassa, an archaeologist at the National Museum of Transylvanian History, Cluj-Napoca in charge of the site excavations, unearthed three inscribed but unbaked clay tablets, together with 26 clay and stone figurines and a shell bracelet, accompanied by the burnt, broken, and disarticulated bones of an adult male.[3] Two of the tablets are rectangular and the third is round. They are all small, the round one being only 6 cm (2½ in) across, and two — one round and one rectangular — have holes drilled through them.

Article 50 (Part 1) - Waterfox. Figure 4 The nth Fibonacci number (1) is defined as: Fn = Fn−1 + Fn-2, if n>1, where F0 = 0 & F1 = 1. They belong to the infinite series: Each integer is the sum of the previous two numbers. The French mathematician, François Édouard Anatole Lucas (1842-1891), who gave this series of numbers the name of Fibonacci Numbers, found a similar series occurs often when investigating Fibonacci number patterns: The Fibonacci rule of adding the previous two to get the next is kept, but here we start from 2 and 1 (in this order) instead of 0 and 1 for the (ordinary) Fibonacci numbers.

Ln = Ln−1 + Ln-2, for n>1 where L0 = 2 & L1 = 1. The Lower Face of any Tree of Life in a set of overlapping Trees contains 21 points, lines & triangles. Ln = Fn−1 + Fn+1 Is actualised geometrically in the three overlapping Trees of Life as because 34 is the number of geometrical elements in the Upper Face of the third Tree and 89 is the number of elements below it. Ptolemy's world map. Ptolemy's world map, reconstituted from Ptolemy's Geographia (circa 150) in the 15th century, indicating "Sinae" (China) at the extreme right, beyond the island of "Taprobane" (Sri Lanka, oversized) and the "Aurea Chersonesus" (Southeast Asian peninsula).

Perhaps the most significant contributions of Ptolemy's maps are the first uses of longitudinal and latitudinal lines as well as specifying terrestrial locations by celestial observations. Geographia was translated from Greek into Arabic in the 9th century. The idea of a global coordinate system revolutionized geographical thinking medieval Islamic and Europe, as it was based upon a scientific and numerical basis. Contents The map distinguishes two large enclosed seas, the first one being the Mediterranean, the second one being the Indian Ocean (Indicum Pelagus), which extends into the South China Sea (Magnus Sinus) in the East. The Danish historian Gudmund Schütte attempted to reconstruct the Danish part of Ptolemy's world map.

Magnificent Maps: Power, Propaganda and Art - Psalter World Map. Buy the print <img src="/magnificentmaps/images/map1noflash.jpg" alt="Psalter World Map" width="750" height="385" /><p>This is alternative content as your computer requires the Adobe Flash Player and a browser with JavaScript enabled. <a href=" Flash</a> and <a href="/aboutus/quickinfo/webtech/jsinstructs/index.html">enable Javascript</a>.

</p> Psalter World Map, c.1265 Despite its small size, this is one of the ‘great’ medieval world maps. It is probably a copy of the lost map which adorned King Henry III's bedchamber in Westminster Palace from the mid-1230s. Psalter World Map : Westminster, c.1265 Manuscript on vellum : BL Add. Curator video Open video in your media player [43 MB] 5 min 13 sec | Copyright statement Competition closed Copyright © The British Library Board. Geographicus Antique Maps: Rare Antique Map Gallery.

The Map of The Creator. Piri Reis map. Surviving fragment of the Piri Reis map showing Central and South America shores. In his notes appended to it is written "the map of the western lands drawn by Columbus"[1] The Piri Reis map is a world map compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman admiral and cartographer Piri Reis (pronounced [piɾi ɾeis]). Approximately one-third of the map survives; it shows the western coasts of Europe and North Africa and the coast of Brazil with reasonable accuracy. Various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands are depicted, as is the mythical island of Antillia and possibly Japan.

The historical importance of the map lies in its demonstration of the extent of exploration of the New World by approximately 1510, and in its claim to have used Columbus's maps, otherwise lost, as a source. Description History After reading about the map's discovery in The Illustrated London News, United States Secretary of State Henry L. Analysis See also Earliest Known Hebrew Text In Proto-Canaanite Script Discovered In Area Where 'David Slew Goliath' The earliest known Hebrew text written in a Proto-Canaanite script has been discovered by Hebrew University archaeologists in an ancient city in the area where legend has it that David slew Goliath – the earliest Judean city found to date. The 3,000 year old finding is thought to be the most significant archaeological discovery in Israel since the Dead Sea Scrolls – predating them by 1,000 years.

The ostracon (pottery shard inscribed with writing in ink) comprises five lines of text divided by black lines and measures 15 x 15 cm. and was found at excavations of a 10th century B.C.E. fortress - the oldest known Judaic city. The ostracon was found lying on the floor inside a building near the city gate of the site, known as the Elah Fortress at Khirbet Qeiyafa. Excavations are being led by Prof. Why is this inscription so special? It is hoped the text inscribed on the 'Qeiyafa Ostracon' will serve as an anchor in our understanding of the development of all alphabetic scripts. David & Goliath. Artifacts. Ruins. Ankh. Ankh It represents the concept of eternal life, which is the general meaning of the symbol. [citation needed] The Egyptian gods are often portrayed carrying it by its loop, or bearing one in each hand, arms crossed over their chest.

Origin The origin of the symbol remains a mystery to Egyptologists, and no single hypothesis has been widely accepted. It is by Egyptologists called the symbol of life. An ankh-shaped mirror case History A symbol similar to the ankh appears frequently in Minoan and Mycenaean sites. The ankh also appeared frequently in coins from ancient Cyprus and Asia Minor (particularly the city of Mallus in Cilicia).[9] In some cases, especially with the early coinage of King Euelthon of Salamis, the letter ku, from the Cypriot syllabary, appeared within the circle ankh, representing Ku(prion) (Cypriots).

David P. References Bibliography Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. Notes Jump up ^ Collier, Mark and Manley, Bill. External links Ouroboros - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Waterfox. Historical representations Antiquity In ancient Egypt, the scarab (or dung beetle) was viewed as a sign of eternal renewal and reemergence of life, a reminder of the life to come. (See also "Atum" and "Ma'at. ") The ancient Mayans and Aztecs also took a cyclical view of time.

In ancient Greece, the concept of eternal return was connected with Empedocles, Zeno of Citium, and most notably in Stoicism (see ekpyrosis). Egypt The first known appearance of the ouroboros motif is in the Enigmatic Book of the Netherworld, an ancient Egyptian funerary text in KV62, the tomb of Tutankhamun, in the 14th century BC. Greece Plato described as the first living thing a self-eating, circular being—the universe as an immortal, mythologically constructed entity.

In Gnosticism, a serpent biting its tail symbolized eternity and the soul of the world. Middle Ages Alchemy Chemistry Kekulé's proposal for the structure of benzene (1872) Kundalini Yoga Other traditions Shooting Down the Saqqara Bird. Ever heard of the Saqqara Bird? Discovered in 1898, it's an Egyptian artifact believed to be about 2,000 years old. Made of sycamore wood, the bird may have been a ceremonial object, a toy, or even some kind of weather vane, but a lack of historical references to the bird means that we may never know exactly what it was intended for.

The bird is a fun historical footnote, a minor mystery whose true purpose may never be known, but it doesn't represent anything earth-shattering...or does it? Anything remotely unexplained in archaeology serves as a lightning rod for crackpot theories, and the Saqqara Bird is no exception. For many years alternative history enthusiasts have been making some pretty incredible claims about the Saqqara Bird. The Saqqara Bird in all its glory. One of the hallmarks of the alternative history crowd is the idea that ancient civilizations possessed incredibly advanced technologies that were somehow "lost" to later generations.

Wait...what? ______1.) 2.) Los Lunas Decalogue Stone. Coordinates: Los Lunas Decalogue Stone in situ in 1997 The Los Lunas Decalogue Stone is a large boulder on the side of Hidden Mountain, near Los Lunas, New Mexico, about 35 miles south of Albuquerque, that bears a very regular inscription carved into a flat panel.[1] The stone is also known as the Los Lunas Mystery Stone or Commandment Rock. The inscription is interpreted to be an abridged version of the Decalogue or Ten Commandments in a form of Paleo-Hebrew.[2] A letter group resembling the tetragrammaton YHWH, or "Yahweh," makes three appearances. The stone is controversial in that some claim the inscription is Pre-Columbian, and therefore proof of early Semitic contact with the Americas.[3] History The first recorded mention of the stone is in 1933, when the late professor Frank Hibben (1910-2002), an archaeologist from the University of New Mexico, saw it.[4] According to a 1996 interview, Hibben was "convinced the inscription is ancient and thus authentic.

Controversy THE AIUD ARTIFACT. 1. The aluminium wedge of Aiud (also called the object of Aiud) is a mysterious artifact of uncertain origin in the shape of a wedge, which was found at an archeological site near the Roman town of Aiud, allegedly near by a mammoth skeleton. It is composed of 89% aluminium covered by a thick oxide layer. The thickness of this oxide layer is said to be confirmation that the object is anachronistic, at least three-hundred or four-hundred years old. The aluminium wedge of Aiud is often cited as "proof" that aliens visited earth at earlier times, because aluminium was difficult to produce in quantity before 1825.

Most scientists, however, believe that this object is a fake. 2. The Aluminium wedge of Aiud (also called object of Aiud) is a mysterious body in form of a wedge, which was found at digging works near the Roman town Aiud. 3. Three perfectly shaped discs found buried in a South Australian coal mine are baffling geologists and exciting flying saucer researchers. "What can they be? Aluminium wedge of Aiud - Encyclopedia. Acámbaro figures. The Acámbaro figures are several thousand small ceramic figurines allegedly found by Waldemar Julsrud in July 1944, in the Mexican city of Acámbaro, Guanajuato.

The figurines are said by some to resemble dinosaurs and are sometimes cited as anachronisms. Some young-Earth creationists have adduced the existence of figurines as credible evidence for the coexistence of dinosaurs and humans, in an attempt to cast doubt on scientific dating methods and potentially offer support for a literal interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative.[1] History The Acámbaro figures were uncovered by a German immigrant and hardware merchant named Waldemar Julsrud. According to Dennis Swift, a young-Earth creationist and major proponent of the figures, Julsrud stumbled upon the figures while riding his horse and hired a local farmer to dig up the remaining figures, paying him for each figure he brought back.

Archaeologist Charles C. The figures continue to draw attention in the present day. Cyrus_cylinder_extract.png (PNG Image, 748x386 pixels)