background preloader

Ark of the Covenant

Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew: אָרוֹן הַבְּרִית‎ ʾĀrôn Habbərît, modern pron. Aron Habrit), also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a chest described in the Book of Exodus[1] as containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed. According to some traditional interpretations of the Book of Exodus,[2] Book of Numbers,[3] and the Letter to the Hebrews,[4] the Ark also contained Aaron's rod, a jar of manna, and the first Torah scroll as written by Moses; however, the first of the Books of Kings says that at the time of King Solomon, the Ark contained only the two Tablets of the Law.[5] According to the Book of Exodus, the Ark was built at the command of God, in accordance with the instructions given to Moses on Mount Sinai.[6] God was said to have communicated with Moses "from between the two cherubim" on the Ark's cover.[7] Biblical account[edit] Construction and description[edit] Mobile vanguard[edit] Capture by the Philistines[edit] In Solomon's Temple[edit]

Menelik I Menelik I (called Bäynä Ləkḥəm in the Kebra Nagast; also named Ebna la-Hakim, Arabic: Ibn Al-Hakim, "Son of the Wise"[1]), first Solomonic Emperor of Ethiopia, is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, ancient Queen of Sheba (in modern Ethiopia). He is alleged to have ruled around 950 BC, according to traditional sources.[2][3] Tradition credits him with bringing the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia, following a visit to Jerusalem to meet his father upon reaching adulthood. According to the Kebra Nagast, King Solomon had intended on sending one son of each of his nobles and one son of each temple priest with Menelik upon his return to his mother's kingdom. He is supposed to have had a replica made of the Ark for them to take with them. The medieval incarnation of the alleged Solomonic dynasty did not come into power until 1262 AD, claiming descent from the Kings of Aksum. Popular culture[edit] See also[edit] Menelik II of Ethiopia (1844–1913)

Ephod Jewish High Priest wearing the sacred vestments. The ephod is depicted here in yellow. An ephod (Hebrew אֵפוֹד) (/ˈɛfɒd/ or /ˈiːfɒd/) was an article of clothing, and an object of worship in ancient Israelite culture, and was closely connected with oracular practices and priestly ritual. In the Book of Judges, Gideon and Micah each cast one from a metal, and Gideon's was worshipped (Judges 8:26-27, Judges 17:5). Description[edit] Within the Bible, in the contexts where it is worn, the ephod is usually described as being linen, but did not constitute complete clothing of any kind, as the Books of Samuel describe David's wife Michal as taunting him for indecently exposing himself by wearing one.[1] Though some Bible translations insert the word "only" before ephod (inferring David was indecent), the book of 1 Chronicles states that David was "clothed with a robe of fine linen, as were all the Levites who bore the ark... Wearing and composition[edit] Origins[edit] Extended uses[edit]

Garden of Eden The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel.[2] The "garden of God", not called Eden, is mentioned in Genesis 14, and the "trees of the garden" are mentioned in Ezekiel 31. The Book of Zechariah and the Book of Psalms also refer to trees and water in relation to the temple without explicitly mentioning Eden.[3] Traditionally, the favoured derivation of the name "Eden" was from the Akkadian edinnu, derived from a Sumerian word meaning "plain" or "steppe". Eden is now believed to be more closely related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful, well-watered Biblical narratives[edit] Eden in Genesis[edit] The second part of the Genesis creation narrative, in Genesis 2:4–3:24, opens with "the LORD God"(v.7) creating the first man (Adam), whom he placed in a garden that he planted "eastward in Eden". Eden in Ezekiel[edit] Proposed locations[edit] Tabriz[edit]

Priestly breastplate The breastplate of the High Priest. Hebrew Bible[edit] According to the description in Exodus, this breastplate was attached to the ephod by gold chains/cords tied to the gold rings on the ephod's shoulder straps, and by blue ribbon tied to the gold rings at the lower parts of the ephod (Exodus 28:15-19). The biblical description states that the breastplate was also to be made from the same material as the Ephod - embroidered linen - and was to be a square, a cubit in width, two layers thick, and with four rows of three engraved gems each embedded upon it, each jewel being framed in gold.[3] The description states that the square breastplate was to be formed from two equal rectangular[clarification needed] pieces of cloth - suggesting that its appearance was similar to a backless waistcoat, with a pouch inside to contain the Urim and Thummim. The Jewels[edit] Artist's conception of Jewish high priest wearing a hoshen in ancient Judah. First row[edit] Second row[edit] Third row[edit]

Ten Commandments The Ten Commandments, also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity. They include instructions to worship only God and to keep the sabbath, and prohibitions against idolatry, blasphemy, murder, theft, dishonesty, and adultery. Different groups follow slightly different traditions for interpreting and numbering them. Terminology[edit] In biblical Hebrew, the Ten Commandments are called עשרת הדברים (transliterated Asereth ha-D'bharîm) and in Rabbinical Hebrew עשרת הדברות (transliterated Asereth ha-Dibroth), both translatable as "the ten words", "the ten sayings" or "the ten matters".[2] The Tyndale and Coverdale English translations used "ten verses". The stone tablets, as opposed to the commandments inscribed on them, are called לוחות הברית: Luchot HaBrit, meaning "the tablets of the covenant". Story in Exodus and Deuteronomy[edit] Traditions for numbering[edit] Traditions: Judaism[edit]

Noah's Ark Noah's Ark (1846), a painting by the American folk painter Edward Hicks A ship modeled after the biblical description of Noah's Ark, Ark van Noach, in the Netherlands Noah's Ark (Hebrew: תיבת נח‎; Biblical Hebrew: Tevat Noaḥ) is the vessel in the Genesis flood narrative (Genesis chapters 6–9) by which Noah saves himself, his family, and a remnant of all the world's animals from the flood. God gives Noah detailed instructions for building the ark: it is to be of gopher wood, smeared inside and out with pitch, with three decks and internal compartments; it will be 300 cubits long (137.16 m, 450 ft), 50 wide (22.86 m, 75 ft), and 30 high (13.716 m, 45 ft); it will have a roof "finished to a cubit upward"; and an entrance on the side. The Genesis flood narrative is similar to numerous other flood myths from a variety of cultures. There is no scientific evidence supporting a global flood. Origins[edit] Comparative mythology[edit] Traditions[edit] Rabbinic Judaism[edit] Christianity[edit]

The Exodus Significant portions of the story told in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy may not have been intended to be historiographic, but the overall intent was historical according to the understanding of the ancient writers: to demonstrate God's actions in history, to recall Israel's bondage and salvation, and to demonstrate the fulfillment of Israel's covenant. No archeological evidence has been found to support the Book of Exodus and most archaeologists have abandoned the investigation of Moses and the Exodus as "a fruitless pursuit". The opinion of the overwhelming majority of modern biblical scholars is that the Pentateuch as we know it was shaped into its final form in the post-Exilic period, although the traditions behind the narrative are older and can be traced in the writings of the 8th century prophets. Origins of the Exodus story[edit] Historicity[edit] Numbers and logistics[edit] Archaeology[edit] Anachronisms[edit] Chronology[edit] Route and date[edit] Route[edit]

Solomonic column From Raphael's workshop, "Healing of the Lame Man," a cartoon for a tapestry that depicts Peter healing the lame man (Acts 3). The artist used the Solomonic columns in St. Peter's Basilica as models for the columns of the Jewish Temple Etymology and origin[edit] Unlike the classical example of Trajan's Column of ancient Rome, which has a turned shaft decorated with a single continuous helical band of low-reliefs depicting Trajan’s military might in battle, the twisted column is known to be an eastern motif taken into Byzantine architecture and decoration. Twist-fluted columns were a feature of some eastern architecture of Late Antiquity. Constantine's columns in their present day location on a pier in St. Solomonic columns entwined with grapevines in the frontispiece to Hugh Broughton, A Concent of Scripture, London, 1588 From Byzantine examples, the Solomonic column passed to Western Romanesque architecture. In Baroque architecture[edit] Bernini's baldacchino in St. Image gallery[edit]