This pearl is for storing important information about prescription drugs. Jan 15
An opioid is a psychoactive chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors , which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract . The receptors in these organ systems mediate both the beneficial effects and the side effects of opioids. Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs ; the therapeutic use of the opium poppy predates recorded history. The analgesic (painkiller) effects of opioids are due to decreased perception of pain, decreased reaction to pain as well as increased pain tolerance.
Oxycodone is an analgesic medication synthesized from poppy -derived thebaine . It was developed in 1916 in Germany, [ 5 ] [ 6 ] as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opioids: morphine , diacetylmorphine (heroin), and codeine . [ 1 ] Oxycodone oral medications are generally prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Thebaine ( paramorphine ), is an opiate alkaloid , its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai , an ancient city in Upper Egypt . A minor constituent of opium , thebaine is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine , but has stimulatory rather than depressant effects. At high doses, it causes convulsions similar to strychnine poisoning. The "unnatural" enantiomer (+)-thebaine does show analgesic effects apparently mediated through opioid receptors, unlike the inactive natural enantiomer (-)-thebaine. [ 3 ] Thebaine is not used therapeutically, but as the main alkaloid extracted from Papaver bracteatum (Iranian Poppy), it can be converted industrially into a variety of compounds including oxycodone , oxymorphone , nalbuphine , naloxone , naltrexone , buprenorphine and etorphine .
Hydromorphone , a more common synonym for dihydromorphinone , commonly a hydrochloride (brand names Palladone , Dilaudid , and numerous others) is a very potent centrally acting analgesic drug of the opioid class. It is a derivative of morphine , to be specific, a hydrogenated ketone thereof, and it can be said that hydromorphone is to morphine as hydrocodone is to codeine and, therefore, a semi-synthetic drug. It is, in medical terms, an opioid analgesic and, in legal terms, a narcotic .
For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation) , or for the class of drugs see Opioid . Harvesting the poppy pod. In medicine , the term opiate describes any of the narcotic opioid alkaloids found as natural products in the opium poppy plant, Papaver somniferum . [ 1 ] [ edit ] Overview Opiates belong to the large biosynthetic group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, and are so named because they are naturally occurring alkaloids found in the opium poppy. The major psychoactive opiates are morphine , codeine , and thebaine .
Opioid dependence is a medical diagnosis characterized by an individual's inability to stop using opioids (morphine, heroin, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, etc.) even when objectively it is in his or her best interest to do so. In 1964 the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence introduced "dependence" as "A cluster of physiological, behavioural and cognitive phenomena of variable intensity, in which the use of a psychoactive drug (or drugs) takes on a high priority. The necessary descriptive characteristics are preoccupation with a desire to obtain and take the drug and persistent drug-seeking behaviour. Determinants and problematic consequences of drug dependence may be biological, psychological or social, and usually interact".