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MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) is an empathogenic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine classes of drugs. MDMA has become widely known as "ecstasy" (shortened to "E", "X", or "XTC"), usually referring to its street form, although this term may also include the presence of possible adulterants. The UK term "Mandy" and the US term "Molly" colloquially refer to MDMA that is relatively free of adulterants.[3] MDMA can induce euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, diminished anxiety, and mild psychedelia. Many studies, particularly in the fields of psychology and cognitive therapy, have suggested MDMA has therapeutic benefits and facilitates therapy sessions in certain individuals, a practice for which it had been formally used in the past. Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety associated with terminal cancer[4][5] and addiction.[6] Medical use[edit] Recreational use[edit] Tablets containing MDMA

Related:  Psychoactive AlkaloidsStimulantsdrugs in mental health

Iproniazid Iproniazid (Euphozid, Iprazid, Ipronid, Ipronin, Marsilid, Rivivol) is a hydrazine drug used as an antidepressant.[1] It acts as an irreversible and nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).[2] Though it has been widely discontinued in most of the world, it is still used in France. As with all MAOIs, iproniazid is contraindicated in patients using SSRIs, SRAs, and serotonin agonists. History[edit] Methylphenidate Methylphenidate (trade names Concerta, Methylin, Ritalin, Equasym XL) is a psychostimulant drug and substituted phenethylamine approved for treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. The original patent was owned by CIBA, now Novartis Corporation. It was first licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1955 for treating what was then known as hyperactivity. Prescribed to patients beginning in 1960, the drug became heavily prescribed in the 1990s, when the diagnosis of ADHD itself became more widely accepted.[1][2]

Serotonin transporter The serotonin transporter ( SERT ) is a monoamine transporter protein . This is an integral membrane protein that transports the neurotransmitter serotonin from synaptic spaces into presynaptic neurons . This transport of serotonin by the SERT protein terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner. This protein is the target of many antidepressant medications, including those of the SSRI class. [ 1 ] It is a member of the sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family. A repeat length polymorphism in the promoter of this gene has been shown to affect the rate of serotonin uptake and may play a role in sudden infant death syndrome , aggressive behavior in Alzheimer disease patients, post-traumatic stress disorder and depression-susceptibility in people experiencing emotional trauma. [ 2 ]

Methcathinone Methcathinone (α-methylamino-propiophenone or ephedrone) (sometimes called "cat" or "jeff") is a monoamine alkaloid and psychoactive stimulant, a substituted cathinone. It is used as a recreational drug and considered to be addictive.[1] It is usually snorted, but can be smoked, injected, or taken orally. Methcathinone is listed as a Schedule I controlled substance by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the United States' Controlled Substances Act.

Tranylcypromine Tranylcypromine (Parnate, Jatrosom) is a drug of the substituted phenethylamine and amphetamine classes which acts as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI)—it is a nonselective and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO).[1][2] It is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic agent in the clinical treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. History[edit] The drug was introduced by Smith, Kline and French in the United Kingdom in 1960, and approved in the United States in 1961.[5] It was withdrawn from the market in February 1964 due to a number of patient deaths involving hypertensive crises with intracranial bleeding. However, it was reintroduced later that year with more limited indications and specific warnings of the risks.[6]

Tobacco Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes. The chief commercial species, N. tabacum, is believed to have been native to tropical America, like most nicotiana plants, but has been so long cultivated that it is no longer known in the wild. N. rustica, a species producing fast-burning leaves, was the tobacco originally raised in Virginia, but it is now grown chiefly in Turkey, India, and Russia. The addictive alkaloid nicotine is popularly known as the most characteristic constituent of tobacco, but harmful effects of tobacco consumption can derive from the thousands of different chemicals in the smoke, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (such as benzopyrene), formaldehyde, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), phenols, and many others.[2] Tobacco also contains beta-carboline alkaloids which inhibit monoamine oxidase.[3] Tobacco cultivation is similar to other agricultural products.

Interneuron An interneuron (also called relay neuron , association neuron , connector neuron or local circuit neuron ) is a neuron that forms a connection between other neurons. Interneurons are neither motor nor sensory . The term is also applied to brain and spinal cord neurons whose axons connect only with nearby neurons, to distinguish them from "projection" neurons, whose axons ( projection fibers ) project to more distant regions of the brain or spinal cord. Interneurons in the central nervous system [ edit ]

Dimethoxyamphetamine DMA, or dimethoxyamphetamine, is a series of lesser-known psychedelic drugs similar in structure to amphetamine and to trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA). They were first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin and written up in his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved).[1] Very little data is known about their dangers or toxicity. Positional isomers[edit] 2,4-DMA[edit] 2,4-DMA, or 2,4-dimethoxy-amphetamine Dosage: 60 mg or greater