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A benzodiazepine /ˌbɛnzɵdaɪˈæzɨpiːn/ (sometimes colloquially "benzo"; often abbreviated "BZD") is a psychoactive drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium) since 1963.[1] In general, benzodiazepines are safe and effective in the short term, although cognitive impairments and paradoxical effects such as aggression or behavioral disinhibition occasionally occur. A minority react reverse and contrary to what would normally be expected. There is controversy concerning the safety of benzodiazepines in pregnancy. Medical uses[edit] Panic disorder[edit] Benzodiazepines are usually administered orally; however, very occasionally lorazepam or diazepam may be given intravenously for the treatment of panic attacks.[17] Insomnia[edit] Related:  Psycho-DepressantsAnxiolyticAddiction

Opioid An opioid is any chemical that resembles morphine or other opiates in its pharmacological effects. Opioids work by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. The receptors in these organ systems mediate the beneficial effects as well as the psychoactive and the side effects of opioids. Although the term opiate is often used as a synonym for opioid, the term opiate is properly limited to the natural alkaloids found in the resin of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), while opioid refers to both opiates and synthetic substances, as well as to opioid peptides. Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs; the therapeutic use of the opium poppy predates recorded history. The analgesic (painkiller) effects of opioids are due to decreased perception of pain, decreased reaction to pain as well as increased pain tolerance. Medical uses[edit] Acute pain[edit] Chronic non cancer pain[edit] Tolerance[edit]

Alprazolam Alprazolam has a fast onset of action and symptomatic relief. Ninety percent of peak effects are achieved within the first hour of using either in preparation for panic disorder, and full peak effects are achieved in 1.5 and 1.6 hours respectively.[6][7] Peak benefits achieved for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may take up to a week.[8][9] Tolerance to the anxiolytic/antipanic effects is controversial with some authoritative sources reporting the development of tolerance,[10] and others reporting no development of tolerance;[3][11] tolerance will however, develop to the sedative-hypnotic effects within a couple of days.[11] Withdrawal symptoms or rebound symptoms may occur after ceasing treatment abruptly following a few weeks or longer of steady dosing, and may necessitate a gradual dose reduction.[8][12] Medical uses[edit] Panic disorder[edit] Anxiety disorders[edit] Nausea due to chemotherapy[edit] Pregnancy and lactation[edit] Contraindications[edit] Adverse effects[edit] [edit]

Paradoxical reaction A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected. An example of a paradoxical reaction is pain caused by a pain relief medication. Benzodiazepines[edit] Benzodiazepines, a class of psychoactive drugs called the "minor" tranquilizers, have varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxing properties, but they may create the exact opposite effects. Susceptible individuals may respond to benzodiazepine treatment with an increase in anxiety, aggressiveness, agitation, confusion, disinhibition, loss of impulse control, talkativeness, violent behavior, and even convulsions. Paradoxical rage reactions due to benzodiazepines occur as a result of an altered level of consciousness, which generates automatic behaviors, anterograde amnesia and uninhibited aggression. Self aggression has been reported and also demonstrated in laboratory conditions in a clinical study.

Principles | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Skip to main content En español Home » Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations - A Research-Based Guide » Principles Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations - A Research-Based Guide Principles Drug addiction is a brain disease that affects behavior. Prev Index Next This page was last updated April 2014 Contents Ordering Publications Call 1-877-643-2644 or: Get this Publication Featured Publications Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Marijuana: Facts for Teens Heroin More SAMHSA’s Offender Reintegration Toolkit contestExternal link, please review our disclaimer. AddThis Sharing Hide Show AddThis Share Toggle Dock Share Close AddThisPrivacy

Pulmonary embolism Blockage of one or more of the arteries to the lungs typically by a blood clot which has traveled from elsewhere in the body PE usually results from a blood clot in the leg that travels to the lung.[6] The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, prolonged bed rest, smoking, stroke, certain genetic conditions, estrogen-based medication, pregnancy, obesity, and after some types of surgery.[3] A small proportion of cases are due to the embolization of air, fat, or amniotic fluid.[11][12] Diagnosis is based on signs and symptoms in combination with test results.[4] If the risk is low, a blood test known as a D-dimer may rule out the condition.[4] Otherwise, a CT pulmonary angiography, lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or ultrasound of the legs may confirm the diagnosis.[4] Together, deep vein thrombosis and PE are known as venous thromboembolism (VTE).[13] Signs and symptoms[edit] On physical examination, the lungs are usually normal. Risk factors[edit] Underlying causes[edit] Imaging[edit]

Barbiturate Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia. They are also effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates also have analgesic effects; however, these effects are somewhat weak, preventing barbiturates from being used in surgery in the absence of other analgesics. They have addiction potential, both physical and psychological. Barbiturates have now largely been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice – for example, in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia – mainly because benzodiazepines are significantly less dangerous in overdose. History[edit] It was not until the 1950s that the behavioural disturbances and physical dependence potential of barbiturates became recognized.[5] Barbiturates can in most cases be used either as the free acid or as salts of sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, lithium, etc. Therapeutic uses[edit]

Anxiolytic An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent)[1] is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Together these categories of psychoactive compounds or interventions may be referred to as anxiotropic compounds/agents. Some recreational drugs such as beverage alcohols (which contain ethanol) induce anxiolysis. Anxiolytic medications have been used for the treatment of anxiety and its related psychological and physical symptoms. Beta-receptor blockers such as propranolol and oxprenolol, although not anxiolytics, can be used to combat the somatic symptoms of anxiety. Anxiolytics are also known as minor tranquilizers.[3] The term is less common in modern texts, and was originally derived from a dichotomy with major tranquilizers, also known as neuroleptics or antipsychotics. Types of anxiolytics/anti-anxiety drugs[edit] Medications[edit] Benzodiazepines[edit] Serotonergic antidepressants[edit]

Blind Tennis - Tennis for the Blind and Partially Sighted The Japanese really do seem to invent a lot of sports, especially for the disabled. Not long ago, we told you about Doglegs, a wrestling sport for the handicapped. Now, we’re going to introduce you to Blind Tennis, which is of course, tennis played by the blind. The creation of the sport is largely credited to Miyoshi Takei, who in spite of his blindness, started to play tennis as a kid with the encouragement of his high school teacher. via CNNGO Interestingly, blind tennis is played on a badminton court with string taped to the lines so players can feel the boundaries. Reddit Stumble The Hungry Heart Movie