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A benzodiazepine /ˌbɛnzɵdaɪˈæzɨpiːn/ (sometimes colloquially "benzo"; often abbreviated "BZD") is a psychoactive drug whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first such drug, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, and made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, which has also marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam (Valium) since 1963.[1] In general, benzodiazepines are safe and effective in the short term, although cognitive impairments and paradoxical effects such as aggression or behavioral disinhibition occasionally occur. A minority react reverse and contrary to what would normally be expected. There is controversy concerning the safety of benzodiazepines in pregnancy. Medical uses[edit] Panic disorder[edit] Benzodiazepines are usually administered orally; however, very occasionally lorazepam or diazepam may be given intravenously for the treatment of panic attacks.[17] Insomnia[edit]

Related:  Psycho-Depressantsmental disorders in the 20th centuryAnxiolyticdrugs in mental healthAddiction

Opioid An opioid is any chemical that resembles morphine or other opiates in its pharmacological effects. Opioids work by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. The receptors in these organ systems mediate the beneficial effects as well as the psychoactive and the side effects of opioids. Although the term opiate is often used as a synonym for opioid, the term opiate is properly limited to the natural alkaloids found in the resin of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), while opioid refers to both opiates and synthetic substances, as well as to opioid peptides. Opioids are among the world's oldest known drugs; the therapeutic use of the opium poppy predates recorded history.

Antidepressant Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraines, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse and sleep disorders. They can be used alone or in combination with other medications. The most important classes of antidepressants are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). Other drugs used or proposed for the treatment of depression include buprenorphine,[1] tryptophan,[2] low-dose antipsychotics,[3] and St John's wort.[4] Efficacy[edit]

Alprazolam Alprazolam has a fast onset of action and symptomatic relief. Ninety percent of peak effects are achieved within the first hour of using either in preparation for panic disorder, and full peak effects are achieved in 1.5 and 1.6 hours respectively.[6][7] Peak benefits achieved for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may take up to a week.[8][9] Tolerance to the anxiolytic/antipanic effects is controversial with some authoritative sources reporting the development of tolerance,[10] and others reporting no development of tolerance;[3][11] tolerance will however, develop to the sedative-hypnotic effects within a couple of days.[11] Withdrawal symptoms or rebound symptoms may occur after ceasing treatment abruptly following a few weeks or longer of steady dosing, and may necessitate a gradual dose reduction.[8][12] Medical uses[edit] Panic disorder[edit]

Tranquilizer A tranquilizer , or tranquilliser (see spelling differences ), is a drug that induces tranquility in an individual. [ 1 ] The term "tranquilizer" is imprecise, and is usually qualified, or replaced with more precise terms: minor tranquilizer usually refers to anxiolytic [ 2 ] or antianxiety agent . major tranquilizer usually refers to antipsychotics . Antimanic agents can also be considered tranquilizing agents. [ 3 ] In music [ edit ] "Tranquilizer" is a song written by Tom Stephan & Neil Tennant , from album Superchumbo "WowieZowie" (2005). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Skip to main content En español Home » Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations - A Research-Based Guide » Principles Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations - A Research-Based Guide

Imidazopyridine The imidazopyridines are a class of drugs defined by their chemical structure. In general, they are GABAA receptor agonists, however recently proton pump inhibitors in this class have been developed as well. Despite usually being similar to them in effect, they are not chemically related to benzodiazepines.

Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, tic, and psychotic disorders. Many CBT treatment programs for specific disorders have been evaluated for efficacy; the health-care trend of evidence-based treatment, where specific treatments for symptom-based diagnoses are recommended, has favored CBT over other approaches such as psychodynamic treatments.[3] However, other researchers have questioned the validity of such claims to superiority over other treatments.[4][5] History[edit] Philosophical roots[edit]

Anxiolytic An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent)[1] is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety. Together these categories of psychoactive compounds or interventions may be referred to as anxiotropic compounds/agents. Some recreational drugs such as beverage alcohols (which contain ethanol) induce anxiolysis. Antipsychotic Olanzapine (Zyprexa), an example of a second-generation antipsychotic Antipsychotics (also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers)[1] are a class of psychiatric medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, or disordered thought), in particular in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are increasingly being used in the management of non-psychotic disorders (ATC code N05A). The word neuroleptic originates from the Greek word lepsis ("seizure" or "fit").[2] First-generation antipsychotics, known as typical antipsychotics, were discovered in the 1950s. Most second-generation drugs, known as atypical antipsychotics, have been developed more recently, although the first atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, was discovered in the 1950s and introduced clinically in the 1970s.