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Why Intelligent People Use More Drugs

Why Intelligent People Use More Drugs
The human consumption of psychoactive drugs , such as marijuana , cocaine , and heroin, is of even more recent historical origin than the human consumption of alcohol or tobacco, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent people use more drugs more frequently than less intelligent individuals. The use of opium dates back to about 5,000 years ago, and the earliest reference to the pharmacological use of cannabis is in a book written in 2737 BC by the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung. Opium and cannabis are the only “natural” (agricultural) psychoactive drugs. Other psychoactive drugs are “chemical” (pharmacological); they require modern chemistry to manufacture, and are therefore of much more recent origin. Morphine was isolated from opium in 1806, cocaine was first manufactured in 1860, and heroin was discovered in 1874. The following graph shows a similar association between childhood intelligence and the latent factor for the consumption of psychoactive drugs among Americans.

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An Interview with Douglas R. Hofstadter, following ''I am a Strange Loop'' Douglas R. Hofstadter is best-known for his book Gödel, Escher, Bach (GEB for short). In his latest book, I am a Strange Loop, he visits once again many of the themes originally presented in that book. The interview below was conducted in September 2007 and was originally published, in Hebrew, in the online culture magazine Haayal Hakore. The interview was conducted by Tal Cohen and Yarden Nir-Buchbinder. Racetam Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus.[1] Many, such as piracetam, but not all, are considered nootropics. Some such as oxiracetam and phenylpiracetam are also stimulants. Others such as levetiracetam and seletracetam are anticonvulsants. Mechanism[edit]

Illegal drug trade International drug routes. History[edit] Chinese edicts against opium smoking were made in 1729, 1796 and 1800.[2] Addictive drugs were prohibited in the west in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[3][4][5] An illegal drug trade emerged in the early 19th century. China retaliated by enforcing the ban on imports of opium that led to the First Opium War (1839–1842) between Great Britain and Qing dynasty China. Chinese authorities had banned opium, but the United Kingdom forced China to allow British merchants to trade opium with the general population. Ampakine Ampakines are a class of compounds known to enhance attention span and alertness, and facilitate learning and memory. The ampakines take their name from the glutamatergic AMPA receptor with which they strongly interact. The AMPA receptor, in turn, gets its name from AMPA, which selectively binds to it. Ampakines have been investigated by DARPA for potential use in increasing military effectiveness.[1] Effects[edit] Unlike earlier stimulants (e.g. caffeine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), and the amphetamines), ampakines do not seem to have unpleasant, long-lasting side effects such as sleeplessness.

HOW TO CHEAT AT EVERYTHING Over lunch with Simon Lovell, a fascinating former card shark, Allison Schrager learns all sorts of things about how swindlers operate ... Special to MORE INTELLIGENT LIFE "I can spot someone's weakness a mile away. In any room I can pick out the best target," says Simon Lovell, reformed con artist and famed magician, when asked over lunch about the root of his talents. untitled Introduction Robert Monroe developed and patented a binaural-beat technology called the Hemi-Sync auditory-guidance system. The Monroe Institute, a 501c(3) nonprofit research and educational organization, uses this Hemi-Sync system within an educational process. During this process individuals listen to a combination of multiplexed audio binaural beats that are mixed with music, pink sound, and/or the natural sound of surf. Binaural-beat stimulation, coupled with the effects of the other components within the Hemi-Sync process, encourages access to focused, meditative, and alert states of consciousness. Ancient cultures used the natural power of sound and music to safely influence states of consciousness in religious ceremonies and to promote psychological and physical health.

CX-516 CX-516 is an ampakine and nootropic that acts as an AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator and is being developed by a collaboration of Cortex and Shire and Servier. It was researched as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease under the brand name Ampalex, and was also being examined as a treatment for ADHD. CX-516 was the first ampakine compound developed by Cortex and while it showed good in vitro activity and positive results in animal tests, the human trials proved disappointing due mainly to low potency and short half-life. However, CX-516 is still widely used in animal research into the ampakine drugs and is the standard reference compound that newer, more potent drugs of this class such as farampator and CX-717 are compared to.

New York's Worst Drug Sites - Persistent Markets of Death Drug trafficking has become so open and pervasive in parts of New York City that, in some neighborhoods, it seems that everyone knows exactly where it is going on and who is taking part in it. But getting rid of it is another matter. In interviews with prosecutors, local politicians and community organizers, a dozen drug-dealing locations were identified as some of the worst in the city. They range from fortress-like apartments in Washington Heights to shadowy doorways in a Staten Island housing project. As summer approaches, these areas turn into little more than drug bazaars.

the Lycaeum - Entheogen Definition Definition of "Entheogenic" Quick Definition: mind altering, psychedelic, spirit inducing, shamanistic substance Some of you who stumble upon this website may be slightly puzzled by a word in our header that is probably unfamiliar to many: Entheogenic. Converted into a noun, the word becomes Entheogen, and the two terms have recently become quite popular among aficionados of botanically and chemically fueled visionary experiences. Rolling off the tongue somewhat easier than the earlier "psychedelic" and also free of that word's accumulated cultural baggage, they have become the terms of choice for many modern psychonauts to refer to their plant and chemical teachers and the states of consciousness that result from their ingestion; in fact, there is now even a print publication devoted to such matters entitled "The Entheogen Review." The term means literally 'becoming divine within'.

Revenge of the Introvert There are as many introverts as extraverts, but you'd never know it by looking around. Introverts would rather be entertained by what's going on in their heads than in seeking happiness. Their big challenge is not to feel like outsiders in their own culture. by Laurie Helgoe, Ph.D. Rosenhan experiment Rosenhan's study was done in two parts. The first part involved the use of healthy associates or "pseudopatients" (three women and five men, including Rosenhan himself) who briefly feigned auditory hallucinations in an attempt to gain admission to 12 different psychiatric hospitals in five different states in various locations in the United States. All were admitted and diagnosed with psychiatric disorders. After admission, the pseudopatients acted normally and told staff that they felt fine and had no longer experienced any additional hallucinations. All were forced to admit to having a mental illness and agree to take antipsychotic drugs as a condition of their release. The average time that the patients spent in the hospital was 19 days.

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