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Heroin: A Hundred-Year Habit. In 1898 a German chemical company launched a new medicine called ‘Heroin’.

Heroin: A Hundred-Year Habit

A hundred years later, this drug is flooding illegally into Britain in record amounts. The latest Home Office figures show a 40 per cent increase in police seizures of heroin. The National Criminal Intelligence Service believes that up to 80 per cent of the heroin currently entering Britain is controlled by Turkish organised criminals based in London and the South-East. How, then, did nineteenth-century science come to bequeath this notorious drug of abuse to twentieth-century crime? Red Gold . Blood Basics . Early Practices . A Brief History of Bloodletting.

Bloodletting Over the Centuries Gilbert R.

Red Gold . Blood Basics . Early Practices . A Brief History of Bloodletting

Seigworth, M.D. Vestal, New York Director, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Upstate Medical Student Program, and Active Staff, Charles S. Wilson Memorial Hospital, Johnson City; and Active Staff, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ideal Hospital, Endicott. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Trephination (also known as trepanning or burr holing) is a surgical intervention where a hole is drilled, incised or scraped into the skull using simple surgical tools.

Ancient History Encyclopedia

In drilling into the skull and removing a piece of the bone, the dura mater is exposed without damage to the underlying blood-vessels, meninges and brain. Trephination has been used to treat health problems associated with intracranial diseases, epileptic seizures, migraines and mental disorders by relieving pressure. History's weirdest fad diets. 1 January 2013Last updated at 19:39 ET By Denise Winterman BBC News Magazine.

History's weirdest fad diets

Your insight into science. From the deep sea vents of the Cayman Trough to the shield volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands, Earth Scientists explore the structures and processes that define our world, the forces that continue to sculpt it, and how these processes have interacted over the last 4.6 billion years of Earth’s history.

Your insight into science

Our Earth science modules introduce how scientists use detailed observations, modeling, and comparative studies to develop their understanding of plate tectonics, the foundational theory of the Earth sciences, as well as biogeochemical cycles, the structure of the Earth and its atmosphere, and rocks and minerals. The Nature of Science - Why Gravity is "Just a Theory" - by Adam Kemp - Newsvine.

In the debate between religion and science a common argument is that the theory of evolution, or the Big Bang theory, or some other scientific theory is "just a theory".

The Nature of Science - Why Gravity is "Just a Theory" - by Adam Kemp - Newsvine

"It hasn't been proved! ", they argue. "That means my theory is just as valid. " This argument shows a very common misconception about science that needs to be cleared up. Science never proves anything. For instance, gravity is "just a theory". WRITER CRAMPS (Main): 13/02/11 - 20/02/11. More participants at Jenny Matlock's Alphabet Thursday Letter S I don't know if I am an exception, but I am not a shoe fan at all and I really don't care about shoes.

WRITER CRAMPS (Main): 13/02/11 - 20/02/11

One of my best friends has at least one hundred pairs of shoes of all kinds and each time she sees a shoe shop she absolutely needs a new pair of shoes, boots, sandals or whatever, it depends the season. When I go shopping with her I avoid streets with shoe shops ! Of course I also have shoes, already to protect my poor little feet from gravel, sand and cobbles and in any case especially in winter, also from the cold. I don't wear high heals anymore I used to when I was working just to be taller than my bosses. Most women think that a shoe is very important to complete the general outfit.

New York City Bar Association - Patent Medicines and Miracle Cures - Pure Food and Drug Act. Original Documents from the Archives of the New York City Bar September 2011 Patent medicines promising “miracle cures” were widely popular during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

New York City Bar Association - Patent Medicines and Miracle Cures - Pure Food and Drug Act

According to a 1905 article in Colliers,“The Great American Fraud,” American consumers were spending more than seventy-five million dollars a year on patent medicines by the turn of the century. 7 Unusual Ancient Medical Techniques — HISTORY Lists. For thousands of years, medical practitioners clung to the belief that sickness was merely the result of a little “bad blood.”

7 Unusual Ancient Medical Techniques — HISTORY Lists

Bloodletting probably began with the ancient Sumerians and Egyptians, but it didn’t become common practice until the time of classical Greece and Rome. Influential physicians like Hippocrates and Galen maintained that the human body was filled with four basic substances, or “humors”—yellow bile, black bile, phlegm and blood—and these needed to be kept in balance to maintain proper health. With this in mind, patients with a fever or other ailment were often diagnosed with an overabundance of blood. To restore bodily harmony, their doctor would simply cut open a vein and drain some of their vital fluids into a receptacle.

In some cases, leeches were even used to suck the blood directly from the skin. While it could easily result in accidental death from blood loss, phlebotomy endured as a common medical practice well into the 19th century. GCSE Bitesize - Ancient Medicine. Five Reasons Cops Want to Legalize Weed. Marijuana as a Gateway Drug: The Myth That Will Not Die. Of all the arguments that have been used to demonize marijuana, few have been more powerful than that of the “gateway effect”: the notion that while marijuana itself may not be especially dangerous, it ineluctably leads to harder drugs like heroin and cocaine.

Marijuana as a Gateway Drug: The Myth That Will Not Die

Even Nick Kristof — in a column favoring marijuana legalization — alluded to it this week in the New York Times. CGIAR Big Facts. Big Facts is a resource of the most up-to-date and robust facts relevant to the nexus of climate change, agriculture and food security. It is intended to provide a credible and reliable platform for fact checking amid the range of claims that appear in reports, advocacy materials and other sources. Full sources are supplied for all facts and figures and all content has gone through a process of peer review. Big Facts is also an open-access resource. We encourage everyone to download, use and share the facts and graphic images.

We believe that by sharing knowledge we can aid the type of interdisciplinary understanding and collaboration necessary for meeting the challenges posed to agriculture and food security in the face of climate change. The Big Facts project is led by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Cook_Global%20Warming%20Myths. Sharing what works. What drives the weather and climate?

A number of different processes form a complex mix of energy, water and moving air to produce our everyday weather and long-term climate. As the Earth's surface warms, energy is emitted back into the atmosphere in a similar way that the hob of an electric cooker radiates heat. But if that's all that happened, the Earth's surface would be frozen, with an average temperature of around -18 °C - too cold to support life. Instead, gases in the Earth's atmosphere absorb some of the outgoing energy and return part of it to the Earth's surface. These gases (water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and some others) act like a blanket by trapping some of the heat.

The greater the concentration of these atmospheric gases, the more effectively they return energy back to the Earth's surface, trapping even more heat and warming the Earth rather like a greenhouse. At any one time, the atmosphere contains many travelling weather systems with variable winds. Climate change - ice and snow and the albedo effect. Climage Change - Energy Management. YurokTribeandClimateChangePrioritizationPlan_Final. Earth system. The climate system is the largest and most important Earth system It is contained within the whole Earth system and it contains several Earth systems. The survival of all terrestrial species depends on climate. A simple picture of the climate system, which practically involves the entire planet.

The World Ocean and the Cryosphere are most important components of the Climate System barely included in current global climate change assessments. The many interactions between the components cannot be captured by climate change models. 1990 IPCC gobal climate change impacts illustration showing the great range of climate change impacts- the entire planet and most important agriculture and water availability.

Indicators of climate change. There are multiple lines of evidence that show the climate system is changing. Air temperatures Air temperatures have increased globally, by around 0.85 degrees Celsius since 1880, with most of the warming occurring since the 1970s. All three major global surface temperature records show that the Earth’s atmosphere has warmed since 1880: In Australia, annual average daily mean temperatures have increased by 0.9 degrees Celsius since 1910, and each decade has been warmer than the previous decade since the 1950s. Australia has observed a decrease in cold days, and an increase in warm days with more than double the number of record hot days observed since 1960.

A Student's Guide to Global Climate Change. Global Warming: Man or Myth - Natural Causes of Climate Change. When one examines the natural causes for climate change it becomes quite apparent that none of these can explain the modern day climate change. Tectonic-Scale Climate Change (Millions of Years): Figure 4.1 (Ruddiman, 2008) shows how carbon is cycled into and out of the atmosphere by plate tectonics over millions of years. Figure 4.1: Tectonic-Scale Climate Change Through a process known as chemical weathering, rainwater combines with CO2 gas in the air and forms carbonic acid. Climate Change.

Botany Of Desire : Cannabis [1/2] ITIS Standard Report Page: Cannabaceae. Legalize Marijuana, Legal Weed, Marijuana Facts. Hemp Infographics on Pinterest. Category: Cannabis Facts. New Medicinal Cannabis Discoveries. Top 10 Cannabis Studies the Government Wished it Had Never Funded SEPTEMBER 1, 2012 in “TOP 10″ STYLE POSTS, FRONT PAGE, GOVERNMENT, HEALTH 10) “MARIJUANA USE HAS NO EFFECT ON MORTALITY: A massive study of California HMO members funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found marijuana use caused no significant increase in mortality. Tobacco use was associated with increased risk of death. Sidney, S et al. Marijuana Use and Mortality. American Journal of Public Health. Industrial Hemp. Hemp Could Free Us From Oil, Prevent Deforestation, Cure Cancer and It's Environmentally Friendly - So Why Is It Illegal?