Islamic Revolution of 1979. Early tourists clambered to the top of Egypt's pyramids in fancy dresses and suits. Four maps that explain the chaos of the Middle East. Residents inspect a damaged site after an airstrike in the rebel-held al-Qaterji neighborhood of Aleppo, Syria, on Oct. 14.
(Abdalrhman Ismail/Reuters) In Washington’s ongoing debate about the cause of the continuing chaos in the Middle East, President George W. Bush stands condemned for the 2003 intervention that pushed Iraq into civil war, while President Obama stands condemned for the nonintervention that worsened Syria’s civil war. In Libya, meanwhile, Washington’s partial intervention also failed to bring peace, while too few Americans are even aware of their country’s role in the conflict afflicting Yemen. Iraq, Sykes-Picot and Mr Five Percent. May 16 marks the 100-year anniversary of the Sykes-Picot Treaty, a secret agreement between Britain and France during World War I to carve up the domains of the Ottoman Empire upon its defeat.
In commemorating this event, blame has been heaped upon the architects of the treaty, British diplomat Mark Sykes and French diplomat Francois Georges-Picot, for drawing up the "artificial" borders of the Middle East, Iraq in particular. While significant attention is given to Sykes and Picot, Mr Five Percent, the nickname of the oil broker Calouste Gulbenkian, certainly deserves attention a century later. Why Sykes-Picot got it all wrong. Sykes-Picot is not to blame for Middle East's problems.
The Sykes-Picot agreement turns 100 this week.
Named after its negotiators, Sir Mark Sykes and Francois Georges-Picot, the secret wartime deal proposed dividing the Middle East between Britain and France, down an extraordinary line. To quote Sykes verbatim, it ran "from the E in Acre to the last K in Kirkuk", and its vestiges are still visible today, in Syria's border with Jordan and western Iraq. Sykes would surely have been astonished to know that, a century later, we are still discussing his deal with Picot. For he had originally proposed the agreement in December 1915 as an expedient to avert a row. The French were angry because they had discovered that, behind their backs their British allies had offered the Arabs territory they wanted themselves.
Could Different Borders Have Saved the Middle East? How the Curse of Sykes-Picot Still Haunts the Middle East. In the Middle East, few men are pilloried these days as much as Sir Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot.
Sykes, a British diplomat, travelled the same turf as T. E. Kut 1916: How the Ottomans defeated the British army. Make Your Own Middle East. What if the Jews had settled in Kenya? - Magazine. Ethnic cleansing of Palestine. The man who would be king of Kurdistan. Learn Theodor Herzl and the birth of political Zionism. Death in Syria. More than 200,000 people have been killed in the four-and-a-half-year Syrian civil war.
The constant violence has forced more than four million toflee the country, fueling a refugee crisis in the Middle Eastand Europe. The country is so dangerous that a definitive tallyof deaths is not possible, but several groups are trying todocument how many Syrians have died, and what killed them. Each of these dots represents oneperson who was killed during the conflict.
“With each passing day there are fewer safe places in Syria,” PauloSérgio Pinheiro, chairman of the United Nations panel investigatinghuman rights abuses in Syria, wrote in a recent report. At least 28,277 civilians have died in shootings and mass killings. Thousands of civilians have been victims of mass shootings and gunfire between government forces and insurgents. Reported deaths caused by random shootings or mass killings March 2011 - August 2015. » Hunger on Trial: An Activity on the Irish Potato Famine and Its Meaning for Today Zinn Education Project. Somewhere back in school I learned about the 19th-century Irish Potato Famine: More than a million people starved to death when blight hit Ireland’s main crop, the potato.
The famine meant tremendous human suffering and triggered a mass migration, largely to the United States. All this is true. But it is also incomplete and misses key facts that link past and present global hunger. WW1: The Famine of Mount Lebanon. Lebanon’s dark days of hunger: The Great Famine of 1915-18. “My people and your people, my Syrian Brother, are dead ...
What can be Done for those who are dying? T E Lawrence naivete lives on. Today marks 80 years since the death of T E Lawrence, the wartime hero, renegade diplomat and reputable scholar.
Lawrence had spent much of his life in motion, coursing across the Arab world, and it was in motion that he died - indulging his passion for motorbikes on an English country lane. Lawrence's heroics during the World War I, during which he galvanised an impromptu bedouin army against the dying Ottoman Empire, were met with public adulation back home. The Nakba - In The Words of Palestinians. The Nakba - In The Words of Palestinians There are so many ways to write about the Nakba – the Catastrophe of 1948.
One could start with Plan Dalet, the Yishuv’s (pre-Israel Jewish community in Palestine) master plan to expel Palestinian Arabs from within and outside the territory “given” to the Jewish state in the United Nation’s Partition Plan.  Its realization in the expulsion of 750,000 Palestinians from their homes by Zionist paramilitaries. The massacre at Deir Yassin when the Revisionist Zionist Irgun and Lehi forces killed 107 Palestinian villagers.  The columns of tens of thousands forced to march out of Lydda and Ramla, hundreds collapsing to death, on the orders of a future Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, “The inhabitants of Lydda must be expelled quickly, without regard to age.”  Israel’s razing of over 400 villages and the implanting of forests over the ruins.
The Nakba. One could write all this and a thousand and one stories in between. Articles: End Notes: Beirut's bullet-riddled Holiday Inn - a history of cities in 50 buildings, day 28. Though Lebanon has been swept by a gentrifying and disfiguring development rush, some older monuments still stand tall.
Meet the Muslims who sacrificed themselves to save Jews and fight Nazis in World War II. Britain issues a stamp to commemorate Khan. (Courtesy of the Royal Mail) Noor Inayat Khan led a very unusual life. She was born in 1914 to an Indian Sufi mystic of noble lineage and an American half-sister of Perry Baker, often credited with introducing yoga into America.
As a child, she and her parents escaped the chaos of revolutionary Moscow in a carriage belonging to Tolstoy’s son. The Last Great Revolution. History of Iran: Revolution of 1979. 15 Maps That Don't Explain the Middle East at All. The Atlantic/Nick Danforth Violent upheaval in the Middle East has recently spawned all manner of maps purporting to explain how the region got this way. Here, instead, are 15 maps that don’t claim as much. Or rather, they do not seek, like many other maps, to capture some fixed set of core facts about the region. Instead, these maps provide a more fluid perspective on the Middle East, often by showing what didn’t happen as opposed to what did. But for all these maps don’t show, they do illustrate one thing: the sobering fact that no one map—or even set of maps—can ever explain the region’s complex history and politics. 1.
The Middle East That Might Have Been. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson dispatched a theologian named Henry King and a plumbing-parts magnate named Charles Crane to sort out the Middle East. The diplomat who said 'No' to Saudi oil. Hindsight can be cruel. In 1932, amid a global economic slump, the impoverished Saudis came to London looking for a loan. Al Jazeera English - Live US, Europe, Middle East, Asia, Sports, Weather & Business News. Ceasefires in Which Violations Never Cease What’s Next for Israel, Hamas, and Gaza? Cross-posted with TomDispatch.com On August 26, Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA) both accepted a ceasefire agreement after a 50-day Israeli assault on Gaza that left 2,100 Palestinians dead and vast landscapes of destruction behind.
How Middle East Studies Professors Handle Bias in the Classroom. As they teach the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, instructors have to point out underlying assumptions—starting with their own. Empire, Republic, Democracy: A History of Turkey. Bernard Khoury / DW5. Bernard Khoury / DW5. B018 is a music club, a place of nocturnal survival. 40 Maps That Explain The Middle East. Maps can be a powerful tool for understanding the world, particularly the Middle East, a place in many ways shaped by changing political borders and demographics. Charles Glass - Journalist - Articles. The lord of no man's land: A guided tour through Lebanon's ceaseless war Harper's Magazine 01 Mar 07 Israel should have known better. BBC World Service - The Documentary, The Making of the Modern Arab World, The Rise and Fall of Arab Nationalism. Signs of Conflict. Pre-Emption and Israeli Decision-Making in 1967 and 1973. To find out more about E-IR essay awards, click here.
Why did Israel decide in favour of a pre-emptive strike in June 1967 and against one in October 1973? Israel extends new border fence but critics say it is a sign of weakness. A National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar for College and University Teachers. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk: the Founder of Modern Turkey. Islamic Comrades No More. Propaganda for Kemalist Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) Ataturk by Beverley Blythe. Talking Turkey. Treaties of Sevres and Lausanne. Lowell Thomas and Lawrence of Arabia / T.E. Lawrence online history exhibit.
Peace is war: Israeli settler-colonialism and the Palestinians - Opinion. Peace is war: After the Oslo Accords - Opinion. Israeli-Palestinian ProCon.org. Ottoman Empire in 19th century. History - The Crimean War. Imperial History of the Middle East. Ottoman_empire_map.jpg (958×659) MapOTTOdecline1798-1923.jpg (1590×1773) IMG_6745A_1024pixel.jpg (1024×683) Lebanon.