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Humiliation as a Tool of Blackmail. Russia today is a country trying to retain its great power status not by dint of success or dynamism or progress, but by cultivating a sense of grievance and resentment. Perhaps the most ominous expression of this Russian “humiliation syndrome” is to be found in its constant reminders to the world of what the humbling of another great nation after the First World War eventually led to. But before the world gives in to this humiliation as blackmail, we should address at least a couple of questions: Are Russia’s grievances real, or are they fabricated? And what true motives lie beneath them? Other nations may have solid historical reasons to nurse a sense of resentment. Do not tell Moscow that the West has abandoned the zero-sum approach and is formulating its policies based on the common good.

But how is “rational conversation” even possible, given what Lukyanov says immediately after this passage? Do not pay attention to all of the public statements coming out of Moscow. Profiles: Key Individuals in the Shia-Sunni Divide. Sufism. Sufism (or taṣawwuf; Arabic: الصوفية‎) is a branch of Islam,[1] defined by adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam; others contend that it is a perennial philosophy of existence that pre-dates religion, the expression of which flowered within Islam.[2] Its essence has also been expressed via other religions and metareligious phenomena.[3][4][5] A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a ṣūfī (صُوفِيّ).

Sufis believe they are practicing ihsan (perfection of worship) as revealed by Gabriel to Muhammad: "Worship and serve Allah as you are seeing Him and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you". Sufis consider themselves as the original true proponents of this pure original form of Islam. Sufism is opposed by Wahhabi and Salafist Muslims. Classical Sufis were characterised by their attachment to dhikr, (a practice of repeating the names of God, often performed after prayers)[19] and asceticism. Etymology[edit] Two origins of the word sufi have been suggested. The Partisans of Ali: A Series Overview. The Origins of the Shia-Sunni Split. Chronology: A History of the Shia-Sunni Split. Safavid dynasty. 40 Maps That Explain The Middle East. Maps can be a powerful tool for understanding the world, particularly the Middle East, a place in many ways shaped by changing political borders and demographics. Here are 40 maps crucial for understanding the Middle East — its history, its present, and some of the most important stories in the region today.

Middle East History The fertile crescent, the cradle of civilization The fertile crescent, the cradle of civilizationIf this area wasn't the birthplace of human civilization, it was at least a birthplace of human civilization. Called "the fertile crescent" because of its lush soil, the "crescent" of land mostly includes modern-day Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and Israel-Palestine. (Some definitions also include the Nile River valley in Egypt.) The Middle East today The dialects of Arabic today The dialects of Arabic todayThis map shows the vast extent of the Arabic-speaking world and the linguistic diversity within it.

Israel-Palestine Syria Iran Afghanistan Saudi Arabia and Oil Iraq and Libya. La mort d’Abdallah, monarque équilibriste. LE MONDE | • Mis à jour le | Par Gilles Paris Il devint régent, puis roi, à un âge où beaucoup de ses contemporains se sont déjà retirés des affaires politiques. Longtemps considéré comme un conservateur pur et dur, réticent à ouvrir son pays aux évolutions du monde, Abdallah Ben Abdel Aziz Al-Saoud, mort vendredi 23 janvier à Riyad des suites d’une pneumonie, fut pourtant tout le contraire. Jusqu’à ce que la vieillesse, conjuguée au choc des « printemps arabes », le ramène à une forme d’orthodoxie. Réformateur comme on peut l’être en terre saoudienne, il tenta d’adapter son royaume aux impératifs des temps. Inlassablement, il s’efforça de limiter les bastions institutionnels concédés aux religieux les plus radicaux par son prédécesseur. Il réagit aux attentats du 11 septembre 2001 perpétrés par des kamikazes, dont une majorité était ses sujets, en formulant une offre de paix globale avec Israël.

. « Princes libres » Les débuts politiques d’Abdallah sont assez peu connus. Monarchie attaquée. 9 questions about Saudi Arabia you were too embarrassed to ask. Map of modern Saudi Arabia (Nations Online) Salman bin Abdulaziz al-Saud became king of Saudi Arabia this week on the death of his older brother King Abdullah. When Salman bin Abdulaziz al-Saud was born in 1935, his country was only three years old. The Saudi Arabia of Salman's birth had not yet discovered oil.

The vast majority of its citizens were poor, nomadic or semi-nomadic Bedouin, and would remain that way for decades. Merely crossing the vast, harsh country was considered unsafe or simply impossible. During Salman's lifetime, Saudi Arabia has transformed and it hasn't. The country is as complex as it is little-understood among Americans; here, then, is an attempt to answer some of your most basic questions about Saudi Arabia. 1) What is Saudi Arabia?

US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, right, meets in 1945 with Saudi King Abdulaziz, who spent decades conquering and unifying Arabian tribes into a country he named for himself. 4) But that was so long ago. At first, yes.