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Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom[1] Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review.[2] Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality.[5] The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training[6] and secondary and higher psychology instruction. Hierarchy Physiological needs Safety needs Safety and Security needs include:

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Motivation Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas. Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting, and sex. Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. These inner conditions such as wishes, desires and goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator A chart with descriptions of each Myers–Briggs personality type and the four dichotomies central to the theory The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire designed to indicate psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.[1][2][3] The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers. Political economy In the late 19th century, the term economics came to replace political economy, coinciding with the publication of an influential textbook by Alfred Marshall in 1890.[1] Earlier, William Stanley Jevons, a proponent of mathematical methods applied to the subject, advocated economics for brevity and with the hope of the term becoming "the recognised name of a science."[2][3] Etymology[edit]

The wastefulness of automation Chris Dillow observes that "one function of the welfare state is to ensure that capital gets a big supply of labour, by making eligibity for unemployment benefit conditional upon seeking work." And despite noting that when jobs are scarce, paying some to "lie fallow" so others can work might be a good thing, he concludes that "this is certainly not in the interests of capitalists, who want a large labour supply - a desire which is buttressed by the morality of reciprocal altruism and the work ethic." (emphasis mine). Basic Income, therefore, is not going to happen because capitalist interests, claiming the moral high ground, will ensure that it never gains political traction. But what if capitalists DON'T want a large labour supply? What if automation means that what capitalists really want is a very small, highly skilled workforce to control the robots that do all the work?

Nathaniel Branden Early life and education[edit] Nathaniel Branden was born Nathan Blumenthal in Brampton, Ontario, and grew up alongside three sisters, two older and one younger. A gifted student, he became impatient with his studies during his first year of high school and skipped school often in favor of the library. After getting failing grades as a result, he convinced his mother to send him to a special accelerated high school for adults, and subsequently did well in that environment.[2] After graduating from high school, Branden went on to earn his BA in psychology from the University of California Los Angeles, an MA from New York University,[3] and in 1973, a Ph.D. in psychology from the California Graduate Institute (CGI), then an unaccredited, state-approved school whose graduates may be licensed by the state to practice psychology.[4] (Graduates of unaccredited state-approved schools such as CGI are limited to associate membership in the American Psychological Association).[2][5]

Meta-Motivation Inventory The Meta-Motivation Inventory Perhaps one of the most fascinating adventures that people share is the process of self-discovery. It is the knowledge of self, derived from increasing self-awareness in this exciting life process of learning and growth that provides the means of developing and exercising our full potential. The Meta-Motivation Inventory was designed to assist in assessing your progress in this process of growth, providing feedback on your characteristic personal, management and leadership styles. The Inventory can be administered and debriefed during a seminar providing participants with valid and reliable feedback on thirty-two personality dimensions contained in the following six major categories. "Life is either a daring adventure, or nothing." - Helen Keller

Risk avoidance and reduction - Operating an effective safety, health and environmental policy - BOC We can reduce the number of incidents that affect health, safety and the environment when we understand their cause. This is particularly true of incidents that result from human error or from a failure to take adequate precautions against risks. Creating a safer and a less environmentally harmful workplace is, therefore, a learning experience that involves:

Sociotechnical system Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. The term also refers to the interaction between society's complex infrastructures and human behaviour. In this sense, society itself, and most of its substructures, are complex sociotechnical systems.

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