Ages of Man The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology. Both Hesiod and Ovid offered accounts of the successive ages of humanity, which tend to progress from an original, long-gone age in which humans enjoyed a nearly divine existence to the current age of the writer, in which humans are beset by innumerable pains and evils. In the two accounts that survive from ancient Greece and Rome, this degradation of the human condition over time is indicated symbolically with metals of successively decreasing value. Hesiod's Five Ages Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Silver Age The first extant account of the successive ages of humanity comes from the Greek poet Hesiod's Works and Days (lines 109–201). Ovid's Four Ages The Roman poet Ovid (1st century BC – 1st century AD) tells a similar myth of Four Ages in Book 1.89–150 of the Metamorphoses. Ovid emphasizes the justice and peace that defined the Golden Age. Historicity of the Ages
List of Roman legions This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion, primarily focusing on Principate (early Empire, 27 BC - 284 AD) legions, for which there exists substantial literary, epigraphic and archaeological evidence. Until the 1st century BC, legions were temporary citizen levies, raised for specific campaigns and disbanded after them. By the early 1st century BC, legions were mixed volunteer/conscript units. Legions became standing units, which could remain intact long after a particular campaign was finished. Large numbers of new legions were raised by rival warlords for the civil wars of the period 49-31 BC. However, when Augustus became sole ruler in 31 BC, he disbanded about half of the over 50 legions then in existence. During the Dominate (late Empire, 284–476), legions were also professional, but are little understood due to scarcity of evidence compared to the Principate. Late Republican legions Early Empire legions Code for Roman provinces in the table:
Nereus Etymology R. S. P. Beekes suggests a Pre-Greek origin. Mythology In the Iliad the Old Man of the Sea is the father of Nereids, though Nereus is not directly named. The earliest poet to link Nereus with the labours of Heracles was Pherekydes, according to a scholion on Apollonius of Rhodes. In a late appearance, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great paused at the Syrian seashore before the climacteric battle of Issus (333 BC), and resorted to prayers, "calling on Thetis, Nereus and the Nereids, nymphs of the sea, and invoking Poseidon the sea-god, for whom he ordered a four-horse chariot to be cast into the waves Nereus was known for his truthfulness and virtue: But Pontos, the great sea, was father of truthful Nereus who tells no lies, eldest of his sons. The Attic vase-painters showed the draped torso of Nereus issuing from a long coiling scaly fishlike tail. Bearded Nereus generally wields a staff of authority. In popular culture Notes
Golden Age There are analogous concepts in the religious and philosophical traditions of the South Asian subcontinent. For example, the Vedic or ancient Hindu culture saw history as cyclical, composed of yugas with alternating Dark and Golden Ages. The Kali yuga (Iron Age), Dwapara (Bronze Age), Treta yuga (Silver Age) and Satya yuga (Golden Age) correspond to the four Greek ages. Similar beliefs occur in the ancient Middle East and throughout the ancient world, as well. The Golden Age in Europe: Greece [Men] lived like gods without sorrow of heart, remote and free from toil and grief: miserable age rested not on them; but with legs and arms never failing they made merry with feasting beyond the reach of all devils. Plato in his Cratylus referred to an age of golden men and also expounded at some length on Ages of Man from Hesiod's Works and Days. Arcadia The Golden Age in Rome: Virgil and Ovid Political significance of the Golden Age
Misogyny Misogyny /mɪˈsɒdʒɪni/ is the hatred or dislike of women or girls. Misogyny can be manifested in numerous ways, including sexual discrimination, denigration of women, violence against women, and sexual objectification of women. Misogyny has been characterised as a prominent feature of the mythologies of the ancient world as well as of various religions. In addition, many influential Western philosophers have been described as misogynistic. The counterpart of misogyny is misandry, the hatred or dislike of men; the antonym of misogyny is philogyny, the love or fondness of women. Definitions According to sociologist Allan G. Misogyny .... is a central part of sexist prejudice and ideology and, as such, is an important basis for the oppression of females in male-dominated societies. Sociologist Michael Flood, at the University of Wollongong, defines misogyny as the hatred of women, and notes: Classical Greece In his book City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens, J.W.
Theseus legendary king of Athens Theseus (UK: /ˈθiːsjuːs/, US: /ˈθiːsiəs/; Ancient Greek: Θησεύς [tʰɛːsěu̯s]) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens. Like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles, Theseus battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and social order: “This was a major cultural transition, like the making of the new Olympia by Hercules” (Ruck & Staples, p. 204). Theseus was a founding hero for the Athenians in the same way that Heracles was the founding hero for the Dorians. The Athenians regarded Theseus as a great reformer; his name comes from the same root as θεσμός (thesmos), Greek for "The Gathering". Mythology Birth and early years But following the instructions of Athena in a dream, Aethra left the sleeping Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay close to Troezen's shore. Thus Theseus was raised in his mother's land. The Six Labours Medea and the Marathonian Bull, Androgeus and the Pallantides Notes
Sphinx Perhaps the first sphinx, Queen Hetepheres II from the fourth dynasty (Cairo Museum) A sphinx (Greek: Σφίγξ /sphinx/. Bœotian: Φίξ /Phix) is a mythical creature with, as a minimum, the body of a lion and a human head. In Greek tradition, it has the haunches of a lion, sometimes with the wings of a great bird, and the face of a human. It is mythicised as treacherous and merciless. Those who cannot answer its riddle suffer a fate typical in such mythological stories, as they are killed and eaten by this ravenous monster. This deadly version of a sphinx appears in the myth and drama of Oedipus. Unlike the Greek sphinx which was a woman, the Egyptian sphinx is typically shown as a man (an androsphinx). In European decorative art, the sphinx enjoyed a major revival during the Renaissance. Generally the role of sphinxes is associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples. Back of Sphinx, Giza Egypt Egyptian sphinxes WikiMiniAtlas Greek traditions
Aquila (Roman) A modern reconstruction of an aquila An aquila, or eagle, was a prominent symbol used in ancient Rome, especially as the standard of a Roman legion. A legionary known as an aquilifer, or eagle-bearer, carried this standard. Each legion carried one eagle. The eagle was extremely important to the Roman military, beyond merely being a symbol of a legion. The minor divisions of a cohort, called centuries, had also each an ensign, inscribed with the number both of the cohort and of the century. In the Arch of Constantine at Rome there are four sculptured panels near the top which exhibit a great number of standards and illustrate some of the forms here described. When Constantine embraced Christianity, a figure or emblem of Christ, woven in gold upon purple cloth, was substituted for the head of the emperor. Even after the adoption of Christianity as the Roman Empire's religion, the Aquila eagle continued to be used as a symbol.
Troezen Place in Greece Troezen is located southwest of Athens, across the Saronic Gulf, and a few miles south of Methana. The seat of the former municipality (pop. 6,507) was in Galatas. Before 2011, Troizina was part of the former Piraeus Prefecture (in antiquity it was part of Argolis). The municipality had a land area of 190.697 km². Its largest towns and villages are Galatás (pop. 2,195 in 2011), Kalloní (pop. 669), Troizína (pop. 673), Taktikoúpoli (250), Karatzás (287), Dryópi (239), Ágios Geórgios (228), and Agía Eléni (159). There are numerous smaller settlements. Mythology The ancient city had a spring that was supposedly formed where the winged horse Pegasus once came to ground. History A cult built up in the ancient city around the legend of Hippolytus. Sybaris in Magna Graecia was a Troezenian colony (founded 720 BC). In the Middle Ages, it was known as Damala (Δαμαλᾶ) and was the seat of a barony of the Principality of Achaea. References
Pan (god) In Greek religion and mythology, Pan (/ˈpæn/; Ancient Greek: Πᾶν, Pān) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music, and companion of the nymphs. His name originates within the Ancient Greek language, from the word paein (πάειν), meaning "to pasture." He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia, he is recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. The Roman Faunus, a god of Indo-European origin, was equated with Pan. The worship of Pan began in Arcadia which was always the principal seat of his worship. Representations of Pan on 4th century BC gold and silver Pantikapaion coins Pan is famous for his sexual powers, and is often depicted with a phallus. Christian apologists such as G.
Ariovistus History Sources Ariovistus and the events he was part of are known from Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico. Caesar, as a participant in the events, is a primary source, although as his Commentaries were in part political propaganda they may be suspected of being self-serving. Later historians, notably Dio Cassius, are suspicious of his motives. Ariovistus's role and status Ariovistus was a native of the Suebi. He was recognised as a king by the Roman Senate, but how closely the Roman title matched Ariovistus' social status among the Germans remains unknown. Intervention in Gaul Some time before Caesar's governorship of Gaul (which began in 58 BC), the Gaulish Arverni and Sequani enlisted Ariovistus's aid in their war against the Aedui. Caesar does not say what the cause of the conflict was, but the Sequani controlled access to the Rhine river along the valley of the Doubs. The Arar formed part of the border between the Aedui and the Sequani. The battle
Thetis Head of Thetis from an Attic red-figure pelike, c. 510–500 BC, Louvre Thetis (/ˈθɛtɪs/; Greek: Θέτις [tʰétis]), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles. She mainly appears as a sea nymph, a goddess of water, or one of the 50 Nereids, daughters of the ancient sea god Nereus. In the Trojan War cycle of myth, the wedding of Thetis and the Greek hero Peleus is one of the precipitating events in the war which also led to the birth of their child Achilles. As goddess In Iliad I, Achilles recalls to his mother her role in defending, and thus legitimizing, the reign of Zeus against an incipient rebellion by three Olympians, each of whom has pre-Olympian roots: Mythology Thetis and the other deities Immortal Thetis with the mortal Peleus in the foreground, Boeotian black-figure dish, c. 500–475 BC - Louvre. Marriage to Peleus Thetis dips Achilles in the Styx by Peter Paul Rubens (between 1630 and 1635) Peleus gave the boy to Chiron to raise. Notes
List of legendary creatures (B) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Buraq from a 17th-century Mughal miniature