Iris (mythology) In Greek mythology, Iris (/ˈɨrɨs/; Ἶρις) is the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. She is also known as one of the goddesses of the sea and the sky. Iris links the gods to humanity. She travels with the speed of wind from one end of the world to the other, and into the depths of the sea and the underworld. According to Hesiod's Theogony, Iris is the daughter of Thaumas and the cloud nymph Electra. Iris is frequently mentioned as a divine messenger in the Iliad which is attributed to Homer, but does not appear in his Odyssey, where Hermes fills that role. According to Apollonius Rhodius, Iris turned back the Argonauts Zetes and Calais who had pursued the Harpies to the Strophades ('Islands of Turning'). Iris had numerous poetic titles and epithets, including Chrysopteron (Golden Winged), Podas ôkea (swift footed) or Podênemos ôkea (wind-swift footed), Roscida (dewey), and Thaumantias or Thaumantos (Daughter of Thaumas, Wondrous One).
Greek Mythology, a World of Mystery and Imagination Pan (god) In Greek religion and mythology, Pan (/ˈpæn/; Ancient Greek: Πᾶν, Pān) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music, and companion of the nymphs. His name originates within the Ancient Greek language, from the word paein (πάειν), meaning "to pasture." He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a faun or satyr. With his homeland in rustic Arcadia, he is recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. The Roman Faunus, a god of Indo-European origin, was equated with Pan. The worship of Pan began in Arcadia which was always the principal seat of his worship. Representations of Pan on 4th century BC gold and silver Pantikapaion coins Pan is famous for his sexual powers, and is often depicted with a phallus. Christian apologists such as G.
Jupiter (mythology) The consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiter's name, and honoured him on the annual feriae of the Capitol in September. To thank him for his help (and to secure his continued support), they offered him a white ox (bos mas) with gilded horns. A similar offering was made by triumphal generals, who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter's statue in the Capitol. Some scholars have viewed the triumphator as embodying (or impersonating) Jupiter in the triumphal procession. During the Conflict of the Orders, Rome's plebeians demanded the right to hold political and religious office. During their first secessio (similar to a general strike), they withdrew from the city and threatened to found their own. The augures publici, augurs were a college of sacerdotes who were in charge of all inaugurations and of the performing of ceremonies known as auguria. The role of Jupiter in the conflict of the orders is a reflection of the religiosity of the Romans.
Heracles Having performed all twelve labours Heracles was now free from any more obligations to Eurystheus. He was left to his own device. Eurytus (Εὐρυτίων), king of Oechalia, was offering his daughter's hand in marriage (Iole, Ἰόλη), if one of the suitors could defeat him or his sons in the archery contest. While Heracles was receiving education, Eurytus had taught archery to the young Heracles, which the king was soon to regret. Heracles won the competition, but Eurytus refused to give his daughter away. Eurytus was afraid that Heracles might kill her daughter as the hero had killed his sons in madness. Heracles left Oechalia in anger, while Eurytus' son, Iphitus (Ἰφιτος) tried to persuade his father that the hero had won Iole's hand fairly. (According to Homer, Eurytus died young, when he challenged Apollo into an archery contest. He tried to get Neleus, king of Pylus and then later Hippocoön (Hippocoon), king of Sparta, to purify him for the murder of Iphitus, but both kings refused.
Religion in ancient Greece Many Greek people recognized the major (Olympian) gods and goddesses: Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Ares, Dionysus, Hephaestus, Athena, Hermes, Demeter, Hestia, and Hera though philosophies such as Stoicism and some forms of Platonism used language that seems to posit a transcendent single deity. Different cities often worshiped the same deities, sometimes with epithets that distinguished them and specified their local nature. The religious practices of the Greeks extended beyond mainland Greece, to the islands and coasts of Ionia in Asia Minor, to Magna Graecia (Sicily and southern Italy), and to scattered Greek colonies in the Western Mediterranean, such as Massalia (Marseille). Greek religion was tempered by Etruscan cult and belief to form much of the later Ancient Roman religion. Beliefs Zeus, the king of the gods, and controller of thunder and the sky. While there were few concepts universal to all the Greek peoples, there were common beliefs shared by many.
Yahweh By early post-biblical times, the name of Yahweh had ceased to be pronounced. In modern Judaism, it is replaced with the word Adonai, meaning Lord, and is understood to be God's proper name and to denote his mercy. Many Christian Bibles follow the Jewish custom and replace it with "the LORD". Name The Tetragrammaton in Paleo-Hebrew (10th century BCE to 135 CE), old Aramaic (10th century BCE to 4th century CE) and square Hebrew (3rd century BCE to present) scripts. History Origins and adoption as the God of Israel A YHD drachm, a silver coin probably struck by the Persian administration in Jerusalem (4th century BCE). The earliest putative reference to Yahweh in the historical record occurs in a list of Bedouin tribes of the Transjordan made by Amenhotep III (c. 1391- BCE - 1353 BCE) in the temple of Amon at Soleb. Yw in the Baal Cycle More recently, the damaged Ugaritic cuneiform text KTU 1.1:IV:14-15 is also included in the discussion: From KTU II:IV:13-14
DELPHI: The Oracle at Delphi The Oracle at Delphi The oracle at Delphi is a figure of great historical importance that was, and still is, shrouded in mystery. She spoke for the god Apollo and answered questions for the Greeks and foreign inquirers about colonization, religion, and power. By her statements Delphi was made a wealthy and powerful city-state. The Delphic Orcle. The history of an oracle at Delphi existed long before Apollo came there. According to myth there were five temples to Apollo, only two of the five exist in historic record. Inquiries could only be made of Apollo once a year on the seventh day of the Greek month of Bysios-Apollo’s birthday. Often the Pythia was asked about colonization. Before the Pythia could be questioned she had to ritually prepare herself. Any type of woman could be chosen to be an oracle. The reasoning for the Pythia’s riddled answers and the nature of the vapors rising from the floor of the temple has been richly debated in the twentieth century.
Greek mythology Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a large collection of narratives, and implicitly in Greek representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines, and mythological creatures. These accounts initially were disseminated in an oral-poetic tradition; today the Greek myths are known primarily from Greek literature. Archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Sources Literary sources The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was primarily composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise. Finally, a number of Byzantine Greek writers provide important details of myth, much derived from earlier now lost Greek works. Archaeological sources Survey of mythic history Origins of the world and the gods